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-- V --



Vacillando (It.)- Vacillating, hesitating, wavering.
VaganS (It.). The old composers called thus the fifth part in five-part vocal music, as it might be a second alto, a second tenor, or any other species of voice.
VaefO (It.). Vat^ie, indeterminate, rambling.
Valeur (Fr.), Valore (It.). Value—for instance, of a note.
Valse (Fr.). A waltz.
Valves. In the mechanism of wind instruments with bellows (organ, harmonium, &c.) are to be found various kinds of valves for shutting out and letting in the wind. Here, however, only the action of brass wind instruments which are made to sound by the player's own breath, shall be described. The valves of a brass instrument shut out the wind from certain parts of its twisted tube. By opening one or more of them the player increases the length of the tube to which the wind has access, and thus lowers the pitch. If with all the valves shut he can produce the notes c gc' e' ff &c, he can produce with one of the valves open the notes B ffy h d'* /"'J a', Sic—that is, he produces the former series of notes a semitone lower. By opening one of the others, or several at the same time, he can further lower the pitch by a tone, a minor third, a major third, a perfect fourth, and a diminished fifth. Thus the player of a valve horn, valve trumpet, &c, has in his hand, as it were, several natural horns, or trumpets, &c, of different pitch. The most usual number of valves is three. There are, however, also instruments with two, four, and more.
Variamente, or Variatameilto (It.). Differently, variously.
Variationen (Ger.). Variations.
Variations. Melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic transformations of a theme! Variations may be formal or characteristic. In the former case they consist of external modifications—graces, pass-ing and changing notes, scales, arpeggios with and without auxiliary notes, Ike, &c. ; in the latter case they consist of internal modifications—developments of new moods, unexpected thoughts, and striking conceits. These two classes, however, more or less coincide ; for good formal variations cannot be entirely void of the characteristic element, nor can good charac-teristic variations altogether dispense with the formal element Variations occur as separate pieces, as divisions of larger works (ibr instance, as movements of sonatas, symphonies, &c.), and as parts of such divisions.
Variato (It.). Varied.
VARIAZIONI—VERSETZUNGSZEICHEN. 253

Variazioni (It.)- Variations.—Tema con variazioni, a theme with variations.
Varié (Fr.). Varied.—Air varié, a theme with variations.
Vaudeville (Fr.). Not the only proposed, but the most probable derivation of the word is voix de ville (voices of the town). The word signifies two things : (I) A gay popular song ; (2) a short comedy interspersed with such songs.
Veemente (It.). Vehement, passionate.
Veemenza (It.). Vehemence, energy.—Con veemenza, vehemently. Velato, Velata (It.). Veiled.—Una voce velata, a veiled (not clear) voice.
Vellutato, m., Vellutata, f. (It.). As soft and delicate as velvet.
Veloce (It.). Quick, swift, nimble. Velocemente (It.). Quickly, swiftly, nimbly. Velocissimamente (It.). Very, or most, quickly, swiftly, nimbly. Velocissimo (It.). Very, or most, quick, swift, nimble. Velocità (It.). Velocity, swiftness, nimbleness.—Con vélocité, with
velocity. Ventil (Ger.). A valve (q.v.). Venusto (lt.). Beautiful, graceful, comely. Vêpres (Fr.). Vespers. Veränderungen (Ger.). Variations. Verbindung (Ger.). Combination, connection, binding. Verbindungszeichen (Ger.). A slur, a bind. Verdeckt (Ger.). Hidden.—Verdeckte Octaven, hidden octave.' ;
verdeckte Quinten, hidden fifths. Verdoppelt (Ger.). Doubled.
Verdoppelung (Ger. ). Doubling—for instance, of parts.
Vergrösserung (Ger.). Augmentation.
Verkehrung (Ger.). Contrary motion, as regards imitation.
Verkleinerung (Ger.). Diminution.
Verlöschend (Ger.). Dying away.
Vermindert (Ger.). Diminished.
Verschiebung (Ger.). Lit., "shift." A contrivance by which the hammers of the pianoforte are shifted so as to strike only two or one instead of three or two strings. The player manages the Verschiebung through the left-side (the so-called soft) pedal, which is sometimes likewise called Verschiebung.—Mit Verschiebung, with the soft (shifting) pedal ; ohne Verschiebung, without the soft (shifting) pedal.
Verschwindend (Ger. ). Dying away.
Verset (Fr.). A versicle.
Versetto (It.). (1) A stanza, a strophe, a versicle. (2) Certain organ interludes in the Roman Catholic Church.
Versetzungszeichen (Ger.). Chromatic signs—sharps, flats, and naturals.





Verso (It.)- A verse, a tune. Verstimmt (Ger.). Out of tune. Verte (Lat.). Turn over.
Verwandt (Ger.). Related.—Verwandte Tonarten, relative keys.
Verwechslung'(Ger.). Change, inversion.
Verziert (Ger.). Ornamented, florid.
Verzierungen (Ger.). Ornaments, graces.
Verzögerung (Ger.). Retardation.
Verzweiflungsvoll (Ger.). Full of despair.
Véspero (It.). Vespers.
Vespers. One of the Canonical Hours, evening service. Vezzosamente (It.). Gracefully, pleasingly. VezzOSO (It.). Graceful, pleasing. Vibrare (It.). To vibrate.
Vibrato (It.). Tremulous. As a noun this term signifies the manner of playing with a tremulous tone (produced by the balancing of a finger on a string) or of singing with a tremulous voice. The vibrato should be employed sparingly, especially that of the voice. In highly emotional passages it is very effective and un-objectionable, but when habitually indulged in it becomes an insupportable abomination.
Vibrazione (It.). Vibration.
Vicenda (It.). Change.
Vicendevole (It.). Interchangeable.
Vide (Fr.). Open—as applied to strings.
Vide (Lat.), Vidi (It.). See.
Viel (Ger.). Much.—Mit vielem Ausdruck, with much expression. Vielchörig (Ger.). For several choirs.
Vielfacher Contrapunkt (Ger.). Polymorphous counterpoint Vielle (Fr.). The hurdy-gurdy. Vielstimmig (Ger.). In several parts, polyphonic. Vier(Ger.). Four.
Vierdoppelter Contrapunkt (Ger.). Quadruple counterpoint. Vierfüssig (Ger.). Of four feet. This expression is used in connec-tion with organ pipes and stops.
Viergestrichene Octave (Ger.). The four-lined, or four-time*
accented, octave, (v. Introduction, pp. 5, and 56 and 57.) Vierhändig (Ger.). For four hands. Vierklang (Ger.). A chord of the seventh. Vierstimmig (Ger.). In four parts.
Viertel (Ger.). A fourth portion.— Viertelnote, a crotchet note; Viertelpause, a crotchet rest.
Viervierteltakt (Ger.). f time. Vierzweiteltakt (Ger.). f time.
Vif, m., Vive, f. (Fr.). Lively. Vigorosamente (It.). Vigorously Vigoroso (It.). Vigorous.
VILLANCICO—VIOLA DA SPALLA 255

VillancicO (Sp.). (1) A sacred composition, a kind of motet. (2) A Spanish lyrical form.
Villanella, Villota (It.), (i) A rustic, homely song and dance. (2) A composition in several parts, simple in its harmonic treat-ment, popular in style, and with the melody in the highest part, that came into vogue in the sixteenth century.
VillareCCio (It.). Rural, rustic.
Vina. A Hindoo instrument with seven wire strings (which are made to sound by plucking them), stretched over a long wooden bar with movable bridges, to the under part of which are fixed two hollow gourds.
Vinata (It.). A vintage song ; a drinking song.
Vinetta (It.). Diminutive of vinata.
Viol. The name of a family of stringed instruments played with a bow. (v. Viola.)
the C clef on the third line.
Viola (It.)- (1) Originally this was the name of a family of bow instruments with a varying number of strings (4, 5, 6, &c.), and generally with a fretted finger-board. Their early history takes us back to mediaeval times. The viols which in England con-tinued to be in favour as late as the early part of the eighteenth century were three in number : the bass viol, the tenor viol, and the treble viol. The strings of the bass viol were tuned in Z> G c tad'; those of the tenor viol in G c f a d' g'; those of the treble viol in d g {? e1 a'd". Two classes of viols have especially to be distinguished : to the one belongs the viola da gamba (lit., " leg-viol ") kind, to the other the viola da braccio (lit., " arm-viol") kind. (2) In our time viola (English, tenor; French, alto ; German, BratscAe)is the name of a bow instrument with fourstrings which is a little larger than the violin. Its strings are tuned in c gd' a'. The music for this instrument is written in the alto clef,

Viola alta (It.). (1) A member of the viol family. (2) An old name of what we now usually call simply viola or tenor. (3) An enlarged viola lately introduced by Hermann Ritter. Viola bastarda (It.). A kind of viola da gamba. Viola da braccio (It.). Lit., "arm-viol"—i.e., a viol which when being played upon was held by the arm, not by the legs as the viola da gamba. Viola da gamba (It.). Lit., " leg-viol"—i.e., a vioi which when being played upon was placed between the knees, {v. Gamba in Appendix.)
Viola d'amore (It.). A bow stringed instrument a little larger than the viola, with seven (sometimes fewer) catgut strings above the - finger-board, and seven sympathetic wire strings below it. The strings are tuned in d f§ a d' a'd".
Viola da spalla (It.). Lit., "shoulder-viol." According to C. Engel this instrument was a kind of viola da gamba. " The viola-di-spala [thus its name is often written] was carried by the performer before him partly resting on his shoulder."

156 VIOLA DI BARDONE—VIOLONCELLO.

Viola di bardone (It.)- v. Barytone.
Viola pomposa (It.). A five-stringed bow instrument, in size between a violoncello and a viola, invented by J. S. Bach. Its strings were tuned in C G d a e'.
Viole (Fr.). The viola, or tenor.
Viole d'amour (Fr.). The same as viola d amort.
Violeiltamente (It.). Violently, impetuously.
Violento (It.). Violent, impetuous.





Violetta (It.). A small viol.
Violin. The chief of the stringed instruments played with a bow The name is derived from the Italian violino, which is a diminu-tive of viola, signifying therefore "small viol." The violin has four strings, which are tuned in g d' a! e". Its principal parts are : the sound-box, consisting of a back, belly, and sides; the neck, on the upper part of which is fixed the finger-board; the tail-piece, to which the lower ends of the strings are fastened ; the bridge, which transmits the vibrations of the strings to the sound-box; the pegs, inserted in a peg-box (the head), to which the upper ends of the strings are fastened, and by means of which they are tuned; the nut, a slight elevation at the peg-box end of the finger-board on which the strings rest. Further may yet be mentioned the two sound-holes (from their form called f holes) in the belly, and the sound-post (q.v.) and bass-bar (q.v.) inside the violin. The music for this instrument is written in the G clef on the second line.
Violine (Ger.). The violin.
Violino (It.). The violin.
Violino di ferro (It.). Nail-fiddle.
Violino piccolo (It-). A small violin tuned a fourth higher than
the ordinary violin. Violino pomposo (It.). A viola with an additional higher string.
Its strings are tuned in c g d a' e".
Violino primo (It.). First violin.
Violino secondo (It.). Second violin.
Violinschlussel (Ger.). The treble clef, the G clef on the second line.
Violon (Fr.). (I) The violin. (2) An organ stop of 8 or 10-feet pitch.
Violoncello (It.), Violoncell (Ger.), Violoncelle <Fr.). A
bow stringed instrument. Violoncello is a diminutive of violoue (big viol), which itself is an augmentative of viola (viol); its literal meaning therefore is "small big fiddle." It has four strings, respectively tuned in C G d a ; and when being played upon is taken between the knees. Its construction is like that of the violin (q.v.). Music for the violoncello is written in the bass clef, tenor clef, and violin clef, the two last clefs being used for the high notes. The notes in the violin clef are often (especially in older works) written an octave higher than the sounds intended.
VIOLONCELLO PICCOLO—VOCI.

Violoncello piccolo (It.). "Small violoncello." An obsolete instrument whose strings, according to Gevaert, were tened a fifth (a fourth according to Fétis) higher than the ordinary violoncello.
Violone (It.). The double bass. Violone is the augmentative of viola, and therefore signifies " big viol," " big fiddle."
Virginal. A small keyboard instrument belonging to the same class as the harpsichord and spinet, its strings being plucked by plec tra, not struck by tangents or hammers. It probably received its name from the fact that it was especially played by young ladies, (v. Spinet.)
Virtuoso, m., Virtuosa, f. (It.). A highly skilled instrumentalist or singer.
Vis-à-vis. A pianoforte with keyboards at its two opposiie rndj. Vista (It.). Sight.—A prima vista, at first sight Vistamente (It.). Briskly, quickly. Visto (It.). Brisk, quick. Vite (Fr.). Quick. Vivace (It.). Lively, briskly. Vivacemente (It.). In a lively, brisk manner. VivacettO (It.). Somewhat lively.
Vivacezza, Vivacità (It.). Vivacity, fire.—Cm vivacizza, con
vivacità, with vivacity. Vivacissimo (It.). Very lively, brisk. Vivamente (It.). Lively, briskly. Vive (Fr.). v. Vif. Vivido (It.). Lively, brisk. Vivo (It.). Lively, sprightly, brisk.
Vocalisation (Fr.). The practice and the art of singing on vowels. Also the art and method of singing.
Vocalise (Fr.). An exercise for practising singing on vowels.
Vocalizzare (It.). To practice singing on vowels.
Vocalizzo (It.). A singing exercise on vowels.
Voce (It.). Voice.—A mezza voce, with half the power of the voice; a tre voci, for three voices, or in three parts.
Voce angelica (It.). The same as vox angelica.
Voce bianca (It.). Lit., "white voice." The female and chil-dren's voices, and also some bright-sounding instruments, w. thus called.
Voce di petto (It.). The chest-voice.
Voce di ripieno (It.), v. Ripieno.
Voce di testa (It.). Head-voice.
Voce gTanita (It.). A powerful, full, and round voice.
Voce pastosa (It.). A full, soft, and flexible voice.
Voce principale (It.). Principal voice.
Voce spiccata (It.). A voice with a clear enunciation.
Voces Aretiniae (Lat.). The Aretinian syllables.
Voci (It.). Voices. The plural of voce.
R
VOICE—VORTRAG.

Voice. This word may be defined as " sound that issues fiom the mouth. " The principal organs employed in the production of the voice are the lungs, the larynx, and the mouth. Without a larynx there can be no voice. " The voice is formed," says Professor Tyndall, " by urging air from the lungs through an organ called the larynx, where it is thrown into vibration by the vocal chords, sonorous waves being thus generated." Most singing masters distinguish three registers : the chest, the medium, and the head register of a voice. The different kinds of male and female voices are described in the articles Bass, Barytone, Tenor, Con-tralto, Alto, and Soprano.
Voicing1. Regulating the tone of an organ pipe.
Voilé (Fr.). Veiled. — Voix voilée, a veiled (not clear) voice.
Voix (Fr.). Voice.
Voix angélique (Fr.). The same as vox angelica. Voix celeste (Fr.). A stop similar to the vox humana. Voix de tête (Fr.). Head-voice.
Volante (It.). Flying, light.
Volata (It.). Lit., "a flight, a volley." A series of quick notes
forming an embellishment of a melody. Volatina (It.). A diminutive of volata. Volkslied (Ger. ). A folk-song.
Volkston (Ger. ). Im Volkston, in the style of a folk-song.
Voll (Ger.). Full.—Volles Orchester, full orchestra ; mit vollem Chor,
with full chorus ; volles Werk, full organ. Vollkommen (Ger.). Perfect.—Vollkommene Cadenz, perfect
cadence.
VoUstimmig (Ger. ). Polyphonous.
Volta (It.). Turn, time.—Prima volta, first time; seconda voila,
second time ; una volta, once ; due volte, twice. Volte (It.). The plural of volta.
Volti (It.). Turn over.—Voltisubito, turn over quickly.
Voluntary. Thus are called the organ solos played before, during, and after divine service ; the name being derived from the practice, formerly more common among organists than now, of improvising such pieces.
Vom Anfang (Ger.). From the beginning.
Vom Blatte (Ger.). At first sight.
Vorausnähme (Ger.). Anticipation.
Vorbereitung (Ger.). Preparation—for instance, of a discord. Vorgeiger (Ger. ). The leader, the first of the first violins. Vorhalt (Ger.). A suspension, a long appoggiatura. Vorig (Ger.). Previous, preceding. — Voriges Zeitmass, the preceding time.
Vorsänger (Ger.). Precentor. Vorschlag (Ger.). An appoggiatura. Vorspiel (Ger.) A prelude ; an introduction. Vortrag (Ger.). Rendering, interpretation.
VORTRAGSBEZEICHNUNGEN—WIEDER.

Vortrag'sbezeiohnungen (Ger.). Indications concerning the rendering of a composition—marks of expression and indica-tions of time, &c.
Vorzeichnung (Ger.). Signature.
Vox angelica (Lat.). (i) A stop similar to the vox humana. (2) A sweet, wavy stop of two ranks of pipes, one tuned a little too sharp.
Vox antecedens (Lat.). The antecedent. Vox COnsequens (Lat.). The consequent.
Vox humana (Lat.). " Human voice." A sweet-toned reed-stop
in the organ, of 8-feet pitch. Vulgaris (Lat.). A flute-stop in the organ, tibia (flute) being
understood.
Vuoto, m., vuota, f. (It.). Open.—Corda vuota, an open string.


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