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Music Dictionary
-- S --

Sabot (Fr.). The name of the metal honks by which the vibrating
length of the strings of a harp are shortened. Sackbut. (1) An obsolete name of the trombone or bass trumpet.
(2) The sackbut of the Bible is a translation of Sabeca, the name
of a stringed instrument. Sackpfeife (Ger.). A bagpipe. Sacqueboute, or Sacquebute (Fr.). A sackbut. Saite (Ger.). A string.
Saitenhalter (Ger.). The tail-piece of the violin, violoncello, and
similar instruments. Saiteninstrumente (Ger.). Stringed instruments.


Salcional. or Salicional, Salicet, &c. A sweet organ stop of
open flue-pipes. It occurs of various pitch. Salmo (It.). A psalm. The plural number is salmi. Saltarella (It.). The same as Saltarello. Saltarelli (It.). The plural of Saltarcllo.
Saltarello (It.). (I) The second division of Italian dances in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; it was in triple time, whereas the first division was in duple time. (2) An Italian dance still in favour, especially with the Romans. The music is in \, f, and x time, and characterised by skipping triplets. (3) The word is used also in the sense of salteretto. (4) See Salterclli.
Salterelli (It.). Jacks of the harpsichord, &c.
Salterello (It.). (1) An Italian dance, (v. Saltarello.) (2) A jack of a harpsichord, &c.
Salteretto (It.). The rhythmical figure ? * or " J *
Salterio, or Saltero (It.), (t) The psalter, book of Psalms. (2)
A psaltery. (3) A dulcimer. Salto (It.). Leap, jump, skip.—Di salto, proceeding by a skip. Salve Regina (Lat.). One of the antiphons of the Blessed Virgin.
Sampogna (It.). A bagpipe.
Sanctus (Lat.). A division of the mass (g.v.). Sanft (Ger.). Soft, gentle, placid.
Sanftgedackt (Ger.). A soft-toned organ stop of stopped pipes. Sans (Fr.). Without. Sans accompagnement, without accompaniment; sans pedale, without pedal.
Saqueboute. or Saquebute (Fr.). A sackbut.
Sarabanda (It.), Sarabande (Fr.). A Saraband, a stately old dance which first became popular in Spain, and then in other European countries. It is either in \ or \ time.
SarrusophoneS. A family of reed brass instruments with mouth-pieces like those of the bassoon and oboe. Sarrusophones are made of eight sizes.
Sattel (Ger.). The nut of the finger-board of the violin, violoncello, guitar, and similar instruments.—Sattel machen, in violoncello playing, to place the thumb crosswise on a string, and thus form a temporary nut.
Satz (Ger.). (1) Subject, or theme. (2) A phrase. (3) A division of a movement or piece. (4) A movement : a division, complete in itself, of a larger work. (5) Style uf composition, annex.ure.
Saut(Fr.). A skip.
SautereaU (Fr.). A jack of a harpsichord, &c.
Saxhorns. A family of brass wind instruments with valves, ol
which the Tenor Saxhorn, in E flat or F, is the most common. Saxophones. A family of reed brass instruments with mouth
pieces like that of the clarinet. They are made of five sizes. Sbalzo (It.). A leap, jump, skip.

Sbarra (It.)- A bar-line.—Sbarra doppia, a double bar. Scagnello (It.). The bridge of the violin, violoncello, and similar
instruments. Scala(It.). A scale.
Scemando (It.). Diminishing, decreasing—for instance, in loudness of tone.
Seena (It.). A scene. This word is used in various senses. (I) Thestage. (2) The theatre. (3) The scenery and decorations of a theatre. (4) A part of a play or opera performed without change of scenery. (5) A portion of a play or opera not interrupted by the entrance or exit of any actoi I» is the entrances and exits that divide a play or opera into scenes. (6) An accompanied recitative with arioso passages, generally followed by an aria. Sometimes the term scena comprehends the aria, oftener the words scena ed aria are used.
Scenario (It.). (1) A skeleton libretto which serves as a guide to performers, managers, &c. (2) A play-bill. (3) In the plural, scenarii, scenes, decorations.
Scene (Fr.). Scene, (v. Scena.)—Hinter der Scene (Ger.), behind the scene.
Schäferlied (Ger.). A shepherd's song. Schäferpfeife (Ger.). A shepherd's pipe. Schäfertanz (Ger.). A shepherd's dance. Schalkhaft (Ger.). Roguish, playful, wanton. Schall (Ger.). Sound.
Schallbecher (Ger.). The bell of wind instruments.
Schallloch (Ger.). Sound-hole.
Schalltrichter (Ger.). The same as Schallbecher.
Schalmei, or Schalmey (Ger.). (1) A reed pipe. (2) A shawm
(q. v.). (3) The chanter of the bagpipe. (4) A reed-stop in the
organ of 16, 8, or 4-feet pitch. Schellenbaum (Ger.). A crescent.
Scherzando, or Scherzante (It.). Frolicking, toying, in a playful manner.
Scherzevole, or Scherzoso (It.). Playful.
Scherzhaft (Ger.). Playful, sportive.
Scherzi (It.). The plural of scherzo.—Scherzi rrusicali, light secular songs, canzonets. Applied to instrumental pieces these words are synonymous with capricci.
Scherzo (It.). Play, sport, jest. A name given to a great variety of instrumental compositions, and indicative of their character rather than their form. Scherzi occur as single pieces, as items of sets of pieces (Partite, &c.), and as movements of larger compositions. The scherzo was introduced into the sonata towards the end of the last century, and soon after also into the symphony and other kindred forms, where it frequently takes the place of the minuet. Its form in the sonata, &c, was at first that of the minuet (a first division of two parts; a second division, o*


trio, of two parts ; and a repetition of the first division) ; after-wards this form was developed and treated with greater freedom. This developed minuet-form is the most common form of the scherzo ; but there are scherzi with two trios, scherzi in a form resembling that of the first movement of a sonata, and scherti irregularly and fantastically constructed. Triple time is oftenest to be met with, more especially \ time, but also ^ time occurs. [v. Scherzi.)
Schietto, or Schiettamente (It.)- Unadorned, without added embellishments.
Schisma (Ok.). The name of several very small intervals not used in practical music ; one of them is the difference between the ditonic and the syntonic comma, (v. Comma.)
Schlag (Ger.). A blow, stroke, beat, pulsation.
Schlagfeder (Ger.). A plectrum.
Schlaginstrumente (Ger.), (i) Instruments of percussion. (a) Formerly also keyboard instruments such as the organ and pianoforte.
Schlagzither (Ger.). The ordinary cither whose strings are plucked, in contradistinction to Bogenzither, bow-cither, (v. Zither.)
Schlechter Takttheil (Ger.). Unaccented part of a bar.
Schleifbogen (Ger.). A slur.
Schleifen (Ger.). To slur.
Schleifer (Ger.). A slide, an ornament consisting of two or more notes ascending or descending by degrees, (v. Introduction, p. 41.)
Schleifezeichen (Ger.). A slur.
Schleppend (Ger.). Dragging, with regard to time. Schluss (Ger.). Conclusion. Schlüssel (Ger.). A clef. Schlussfall (Ger.). A cadence.
Schlusssatz (Ger.). Concluding, or last, movement or division of
a work.
Schlusszeichen (Ger.). A pause A> Schmeichelnd (Ger.). Coaxing, caressing, insinuating. Schmerz (Ger.). Pain, sorrow, grief.
Schmerzhaft, Schmerzlich (Ger.). Painful, forrowfnl
Schnabel (Ger.). Lit., "a beak." A mouthpiece, such as and
similar to that of the clarinet. Schnabelflöte (Ger.). A beak-flute—i.e., a direct flute, fiäU
ä bee.
Schnarrwerk (Ger.). The reed-stops of an organ taken col-lectively.
Schnecke (Ger.). Lit., "a snail." The scroll at the top of th« peg-box of a violin or similarly constructed instrument
Schnell (Ger.). Quick.—Sehr schnell, very quick ; miissig schntU, moderately quick.

Schneller (Ger.). (1) Quicker.—Nach un.l nach schneller, gradually quicker; noch schneller, still quicker. (2) An ornament; an inverted mordent, passing shake, or Pralltriller.
Schottisch (Ger.). A Schottische, lit., "a dance in the Scotch style." Unlike the older Ecossaise, which was a contrt-danst, it is a round dance. The Schottische is in f time.
Schräge Bewegung (Ger.). Oblique motion.
Schreibart (Ger.). Style.
Schreiend (Ger.). Screaming, screeching, squeaking. Schultergeige (Ger.). Viola da spalla (?.».), "shoulder viol,"
in contradistinction to Kniegeige, viola da gamba, "knee
Schusterfleck (Ger.). A rosalia U/.v.). Schwach (Ger.). Soft, weak, faint. Schwächer (Ger.). Softer, weaker, fainter. Schwärmer (Ger.), v. Rauscher.
Schwebung (Ger.). (1) A slight deviation from pure intona-tion. — Schwebungen, beats (:/.v.). (2) A tremolant, or tremulant.
Schwegel (Ger.). An old name of the direct flute, fl.Ue ä bee—i.e., beak-flute.
Schweizerpfeife (Ger.). A cross-fife.
Schwellen (Ger.). To increase in loudness. Schweller (Ger.). The swell of the organ. Schwer (Ger.). (1) Heavy, pesante. (2) Difficult. SchwermÜthig (Ger.). Melancholy, sad. Schwiegel (Ger.). The same as Schwegel. Schwindend (Ger.). Dying away. Schwingungen (Ger.). Vibrations. ScialumÖ (It.). v. Chalumeau.
Scioltamente (It.). Freely, nimbly, easily, fluently. Scioltezza (It.). Freedom, agility, ease.
Sciolto (It.). Free, nimble, easy, fluent.—Fuga sciolta, a fret fugue, not a fuga obbligata, a strict fugue.
Scordato (It.). Out of tune.
Scordatura (It.). A deviation from tlie ordinary tuning of an instrument—for instance, tuning the strings of the violin a e'd a* instead of g d a' e".
Score. A transcript or printed copy of all the vocal and instrumental parts of a musical composition in juxtaposition one below the other. The advantage of such a transcript is, that the various parts may be read simultaneously, and thus a full knowledge obtained of the contents and texture of the work. There are, however, different kinds of scores. (1) A full score is one in which all the parts are set forth in full and on different staves. (2) A pianoforte, or organ, &c, score is one in which the vocal parts are set forth in full and on separate staves, and the


orchestral accompaniments are represented by an arrangement for the pianoforte, or organ, &c. (3) A vocal score is either a score of a vocal composition without instrumental accompani-ments, in which all the parts are set forth in full and on separate staves, or another name for a pianoforte or organ score. (4) A short score 1 unless used in the sense of "compressed score," is an arrangement of all the parts of a composition for one instrument—organ, pianoforte, &c. (5) A compressed score, unless used in the sense of "short score," is a score in which several parts are set forth on fewer lines than usual—for instance, four vocal parts on two staves. Scorrendo (It.). Gliding.
ScOZZese (It.). Scotch.—Alia scozzese, in the Scotch style. Sdegno (It.). Disdain, indignation.—Con isdegno, with disdain, indignation.
Sdegnosamente (It.). Disdainfully, scornfully. SdegnoSO (It.). Disdainful, scornful. Sdrucciolando (It.). Sliding.
Se (It.). If. —Se bisogna, if necessary ; seplace, if you like. Sec (Fr.), SecCO (It.). Dry; plain, without embellishments, (v. Recitative.)
Sechsachteltakt (Ger.). Six-eight time. Sechsvierteltakt (Ger.). Six-four time. Sechszehlltheilnote (Ger.). A semiquaver note. Sechszehntheilpause (Ger.). A semiquaver rest. Second, m., Seconde, f. (Fr.). Second.—Second dessus, second
treble ; seconde fois, second time. As a noun seconde signifies
the interval of a second. Seconda (It.). The interval of a second ; and the feminine form 0/
Seconde (Fr.). v. Second and Secondo.
Secondo, m. sing. ; Seconda, f. sing. ; Secondi, m. plur.;
Seconde, f. plur. (It.). Second. — Cornosecondo, second horn ;
seconda donna, second principal female singer ; seconda volla,
second time ; violini secondi, second violins. Secunde (Ger.). The interval of a second.
Sedecima (Lat. and It.). (1) The interval of a sixteenth. (2) An
obsolete name of the Fifteenth stop of the organ, which would
have been more properly called Quindecima. Segno (It.). A sign. See Dal segno and Alsegno. SegTie (It.). Follows.—Segue taria, follows the aria ; e poi segue la
coda, and then follows the coda. Seguendo, or Seguente (It.). Following.—// seguente, or la
seguente, the following. SegUenza (It.). A sequence.
Seguidilla (Sp.). A Spanish dance in -j- or % time. It is most fre-quently in minor, and pei formed with guitar and vocal accom-paniment.
Sehr (Ger.). Very.—Sehr langsam, very slow.

Sei(It.). Six.
Seitenbewegung (Get.). Oblique motion.
Seitensatz (Ger. ). The second subject in a sonata ; the subject 01 subjects which in a rondo alternate with the principal subject ; a secondary subject.
Semibiscroma (It.). A semidemisemiquaver.
Semibreve. The name of one of the musical time values, [v. Intro-duction, pp. 17—20, and 55 and 56.)
Semibrevis (Lat.). A semibreve.
Semioroma (It.). A semiquaver.
Semidemisemiquaver. The name of one of the musical time values, the sixty-fourth part of a semibreve. (v. Introduction, p. 17, &c.)
Semidiapason (Lat.). The interval of a diminished octave. Semidiapente (Lat.). The interval of a diminished fifth. Semidiatessaron (Lat.). The interval of a diminished fourth. Semiditonus (Lat.). The interval of a minor third. Semiditonus Cum diapente (Lat.). The interval of a minor seventh.
Semifusa (Lat.). A semiquaver. Semiminima (Lat. and It. ). A crotchet. Semipausa (Lat.). A semibreve rest.
Semisuspirum (Lat.). In the old mensurable music, a semiminim, i.e., a crotchet, rest.
Semitonium (Lat.). A semitone, a half-tone.
Semitonium Actum (Lat.). A chromatic semitone, one obtained by a sharp or fiat.
Semitonium modi (Lat.). The leading note.
Semitonium naturale (Lat). A diatonic semitone, not a semi-tonium fictum
Semplice (It.). Simple, plain.
Semplicemente (It.). Simply, plainly.
Sempre (It.). Always, continually.—Sempre legato, always slurred, smoothly.
Sensibile (It.). Nota sensibile, the leading note.
Sensible (Fr.). Note sensible, the leading note.
Sentimento (It.). Feeling.—Con sentimento, with feeling.
Senza (It.). Without.—Senza sordini, without mutes, or, in the case of the pianoforte, without dampers—i.e., with the so-called loud pedal (this expression applied originally to a stop). Senza organo, without organ.
Septett (Ger.), Septetto (It.), Septuor (Fr.). A composition
for seven voices or instruments. Septième (Fr.), Septime (Ger.). The interval of a seventh. Septimenakkord (Ger. ). A chord of the seventh.
Septimole, or Septole (Ger.). A septuplet.
Septuor (Fr.). v. Septett.
Septuplet. The division of a bar or part of a bar into a group of seven notes of equal length.


Sequence. (I) A repetition of a progression of chords or of a melodic phrase or figure at a different pitch. (2) A kind of hymn sung in the Roman Catholic Church. Of the many sequences that came into existence in the middle ages only five were retained when the Council of Trent revised the liturgy. One of these is the Dies ira, another the Stabat Mater. These hymns were named sequences after the melodic strains (sung to the Alleluja at the close of the Gradúale) to which they were written. They were called prosa (sing, prosa, prose) not because they lacked the rhythmical element, but in order to distinguish them from the classic metrical style of poetry.
Sequentia (Lat.). A sequence.
Serenade (Fr.), Serenata (It.). A serenade (from sera, evening). (I) A musical performance in the open air at night under tie windows of a person one wishes to honour or propitiate, more especially under the windows of a beloved lady. (2) A com-position of one or several movements, for one or more voices or instruments, or both, intended for such a purpose or in imitation of compositions intended for such a purpose. Instrumental compositions bearing this title and consisting of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 movements of various character were formerly very common, but now are of rare occurrence.
Sereno (It.). Serene, calm, tranquil.
Seria (It.). Serious.—Opera seria, tragic opera
Serinette (Fr.). A small barrel-organ, a bird-organ.
Serioso (It.). Grave, serious.
Serpent. (1) An almost obsolete leather-covered wood wind in-strument with a cup-shaped mouthpiece, which derives its name from the serpentine bends of its tube. The compass, variously stated by different writers, is, according to Berlioz, from At to V flat. (2) A reed-stop in old organs.
Serpentone (It.). A serpent (q.v.).
Sesquialter. v. Sesquiáltera.
Sesquiáltera (Lat.). (1) The relation of two numbers the greater of which contains the smaller one and a half times—for instance, 3 : 2. (2) An organ stop now generally of two ranks of pipes sounding the fifth and tenth (or rather twelfth and seventeenth) and reinforcing the ground tone. Sometimes the Sesquiáltera stop has as many as five and even seven ranks of pipes.
Sestetto (It.). A sestet, a composition for six voices or instruments.
Sestina (It.). A sextuplet.
Sesto, m., Sesta, f- (It.). Sixth.—Sesta, the interval of a sixth. Settima, SettimO (It.). Seventh.—Settima, the interval of a seventh.
Setzart (Ger.). Style of composition. Setzkunst (Ger.). Art of composition. Severamente (It.). Severely, strictly. Sext. One of the Canonical Hours.

Sexta (Lat.). Sixth. The interval of a sixth. Sexte (Ger.). The interval of a sixth. Sextett (Ger.). A sextet. The same as sestet. Sextole (Ger.), Sextolet (Fr.). A sextuplet. Sextuor (Fr.). A sestet.
Sextuplet. A group of six notes of equal length, which are the division of the units of a triplet into two smaller parts, and have therefore accents on the first, third, and fifth, not on the first and fourth notes. The name is often wrongly applied to a group of tvo triplets.
6forzando (It). Forcing. Sforzato (It.). Forced. These words have in music the meaning of "with a stress, with an additional accent."
Sfllgglta (It.). Avoided, shunned.—Cadenza sfuggita, an inter-rupted cadence.
Sgallinacciare (It.). From gallinaccio, a turkey-cock. To sing passages indistinctly and unevenly, marking clumsily each note.
Shake. A quick alternation of a principal with an auxiliary note a tone or semitone higher, {v. Introduction, p. 43, &c.)
Sharp. The sign (i) which raises the notes to which it applies a semitone, (v. Introduction, pp. 6—10, and the article Acci-dentals. )
Shawm. " A pipe with a reed in the mouth-hole," says Carl Engel; and further, "the smallest instrument of the bombardo kind, called chalumeau." W. Chappell holds that the clarinet is an improved form of the Shawm, Schalm, Schalmuse, or Chalu-meau of a few centuries ago. [v. Schalmei, Chalumeau, and Bombardo.)
Shift. Change of position of the left hand in playing on a stringed instrument like the violin, violoncello, &c. The half shift is synonymous with the second position, the whole shift with the third position, the double shift with the fourth position, [v.
SL (1) The name of the seventh degree of the scale in modern solmisation; it was at a later date added to the six Aretinian syllables. (2) Name of the note B in Italy, France, and some other countries.
Si bemol (Fr.). B flat. —Si bemol majeur, B fiat major. Si h'mol '/linear, B flat minor.
Si bemolle (It.). B flat.—Si bemolle maggiore, B flat major. Si _ bemolle minore, B flat minor.
Siciliana, Siciliano (It.), Sicilienne (Fr.). Originally, a simple, tender rustic dance in f time, and of moderate move-ment. Vocal and instrumental compositions or parts of such bearing this title or superscribed alia siciliana (in the style of a siciliano) were especially formerly to be met with. They are always in f or -5^ time.

Side-drum. A military instrument, a small drum beaten with two
sticks, (v. Drum.) Siegeslied (Ger.). Song of victory.
Sifflöte (Ger.). A flue-stop in old organs of 2-feet and 1-foot pitch,
sometimes also of ij^-feet. Signalhorn (Ger.). A bugle.
Signature. The signs placed on the stave at the beginning of a piece or part of a piece. One distinguishes two kinds of signature—the key-signature and the time-signature. The key-signature comprehends the clefs and the sharps and flats. The sharps and flats of the signature differ from sharps and flats occurring in the course of a movement (which are called acci-dentals) in that they affect all the notes bearing the name of that note whose line or space cf the stave they occupy throughout the piece, unless they be revoked for good by another signature, or for the space of a bar by an accidental. The time-signature indicates the measure of a piece or part of a piece by means of figures and other signs (Q, (jj T T I i i i I» &c.). See Introduction, IV., VI., and X.
Signaturen (Ger.). The figures above or below a bass part which indicate the accompanying harmonies.
Signe (Fr.). A sign.
Siguidüla (Sp.). v. Seguidilla.
Silence (Fr.). A rest.
Silenzio (It.). A rest.
Si leva Ü sordino (It.). Take off the mute. Si levano i sordini (It.). Take off the mutes. Si maggiore (It.). B major. Si majeur (Fr.). B major.
Similar motion. The progression of two or more parts in (he
same direction.
Simile, sing., Simili, plur. (It.). Similar, in the same manner.
(v. Introduction, p. 6a) Si mineur (Fr.). B minor. Si minore (It.). B minor.
Sin'al fine (It.). To the end. (». Sino.) Sin'al segno (It.). To the sign. (v. Sino.) Si nature! (Fr.). B natural.
Sillfonia (It.). (I) An overture. (2) A symphony. Sinfonie (Ger.). A symphony.
Singakademie (Ger.). A society for the cultivation of choral
Singend (Ger.). Singing, cantabik. SinghiozzandO (It.). Sobbing, sighing. Singmanieren (Ger.). Vocal ornaments, or graces. Singschule (Ger). A singing-schuol.
Singspiel (Ger.). In the widest sense, a dramatic representation with music More especially, a light opera, an operetta, with

spoken dialogue instead of recitative, and a play with incidental
Singstimme (Ger.). A voice.
Sinistra (It.). Left.—Mano sinistra, the left hand. Sinkapace. A cinque-pace, a galliard (q.v.).
SillO (It.). To, as far as, till.—Sim alfine, to the end; sino a!segno,
to the sign. Si piace (It.). At pleasure.
Si replica (It.). Repeat! An expression which indicates that a
piece or part of a piece has to be repeated. Si segne (It.). Go on, proceed.
Sistrum (Lat.). An ancient instrument of percussion consisting of a metal frame in which were loosely inserted several metal bars, sometimes with metal rings hanging on them. By shaking the instrument a tingling noise was produced.
Sitace(It.). Keep silent.
Sitole. The same as Citole.
Si VOlta (It.). Turnover.
Sixième (Fr.). Sixth. The interval of a sixth. Sixte (Fr.). The interval of a sixth.
Sixth. The interval of a sixth.—Chord of the sixth, the first inver-sion of a triad. Chord of the added sixth, the chord of the subdominant with the sixth added to it—for instance, in C major, fa e d'. Chord of the Neapolitan sixth, v. Neapolitan sixth.
Skald. An ancient Scandinavian bard.
Skip. The progression of a part by a larger interval than one degree.
Skizze (Ger.). A sketch.
Slargando (It.). Broadening, slackening in time.
Slentando (It.). Becoming slower, slackening in time.
Slide, (i) The movable part of the trombone and slide trumpet by which the length of the tube can be increased. A slide consists of a tube in the shape of a U, with prolonged shanks wide enough to admit of the insertion of two shanks of the remaining part of the instrument. What on the horn and the ordinary trumpet is effected by crooks and valves can be easily and more perfectly accomplished on the trombone and slide trumpet by the slide. In the case of the B flat trombone, for instance, the player can change the key of the instrument by drawing the slide more and more out into A, A flat, G, G flat, F, and E. (2) An ornament consisting of two or more quick notes proceeding dmtonically to the principal note. (v. Introduction, p. 41.) (3) v. Organ.
Slur. The curved line placed" above or below several notes to indi-cate that they have to be played connectedly, not detached. (v. Legato.)
Small Octave. The small octave begins at the c in the second space of the bass clef, and extends up to, but not inclusive of.


the d (the once-accented) above it. Small letters without any accent are made use of to indicate it. {v. Introduction, P; 5-)
Smaniante (It.). Frantic, furious.
Sminuendo, Sminuito (It.). Diminishing, decreasing. Smorendo (It.). Dying away. Smorfioso (It.). Affected, prim.
Smorzando, Smorzato (It.). Dying away, calming down. Soave (It.). Sweet, soft, gentle. Soavemente (It.). Sweetly, softly, gently. Soggetto (It.). A subject.
Sol (It.), (i) The fifth of the Aretinian syllables. (2) The name 01 the note G in Italy, France, and some other countries.
Sol bémol (Fr.), Sol bemolle (it.). G flat.
Sol bémol majeur (Fr.), Sol bemolle maggiore (It.). G
flat major.
Sol dièse (Fr.), Sol diesis (It.). G sharp.
Sol dièse mineur (Fr.), Sol diesis minore (It.). G sharp
Solemnis (Lat.). Solemn. Solenne (It.). Solemn, splendid. Solennemente (It.). Solemnly, pompously. Solennis (Lat.). Solemn. Solennità (It.). Solemnity, pomp.
Solfa (It.). (1) Gamut, scale. (2) Music generally.—Batten U
solfa, to beat time. Sol-fa, Sol-faing. The English verb "to sol-fa" signifies: to
pronounce in singing the syllabic names of the notes sung—as J*
(or ut), re, mi, fa, sol, la, si. Solfége (Fr.). A singing exercise or a collection of singing exercises
in singing which the syllabic names of the notes are pronounced
—do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si. Solfeggiare (It.). To sol-fa.
Solfeggio (It.). A singing exercise in singing which the syllabic names of the notes : do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, or any other syllables, vowels, or letters are pronounced. Solfeggi is the plural form of the word.
Solfler(Fr.). To sol-fa.
Solmisation. An old system of teaching music which consisted in the application of the syllables ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, to seven series of six notes {hexachords). These series of six notes con-sisted of diatonic degrees, succeeding each other by tones and one semitone, the latter being from the third to the fourth degree, and coinciding with the syllables mi fa. Whenever the music exceeded the limits of a hexachord, or any tone foreign to it occurred, it was necessary to change the syllables and pass into another herachord—this change was called mutation. The

ieven hexachords, which were comprised within the compass extending from the great G to the t.wice-accented E (e"), are as follows :—
I. r-A-b,C-D-E.
II? C-D-E,F-G-a.
III. F-G-a,|>- c-d. IV. G-a- t],c-d-e.
V. c-d-e,(-g-aa.
VI. f-g-aa,t>j? - cc-dd.
VII. g-aa - jJljjCC-dd-ee.
The lowest note was indicated by the Greek letter gamma ; B
flat by a round and B natural by a square B, the originals of our
(7 and fcj. With the rise of modern tonality (our major and minor)
and the growth of the chromatic element, the insufficiency of the
system made itself more and more felt. The various changes
which it underwent and the various forms in which it was prac-
tised cannot here be described. Only the addition of a seventh
syllable (si), and the use of only four syllables (mi, fa, sol, la)
instead of six, shall be mentioned. In most of the modern
systems of solmisation the various sets of syllables of which they
make use are always applied to the same notes. The Tonic
Sol-fa, however, is an exception, being a "movable Do" not a
" fixed Do" system—that is to say, the tonic sol-fa syllables
represent always the same intervals, but not always the same
pitch. Do, for instance, may be C, D?, D, or any other note;
but do re will be always a tone, mi fa always a semitone, re la
always a perfect fifth, &c.
Solo (It.). Alone. This word is used substantively as well as adjec-tively. A solo is a piece or passage for one voice or instrument, or a piece or passage in which a voice or instrument is pre-eminent over all the rest. — Violino solo signifies either "violin alone" or " principal violin " in distinction from accompanying instruments.—Solo quartet, a composition for four voices, one voice to each part, or a composition for four stringed instru-ments, of which one plays a prominent part and the others are subordinate.—Soli is the plural of solo.
Bolosanger (Ger.). A solo singer.
Solospieler (Ger.). A solo player.
Somma (It.). Highest, greatest.—Con somma expressione, with the
utmost expression. Son (Fr.). Sound, tone.
Sonante (It.). Sounding, ringing, resounding.
Sonare (It.). To sound; to play upon an instrument.—Sonare alia mente, to improvise.
Sonata (It.). The word sonata (from sonare, to play) signified originally an instrumental composition in contradistinction to can-tata (from cantare, to sing), a vocal composition. At a later time two kinds of sonatas were distinguished : the sonata da chieta


(church sonata) and the sonata da camera (chamber sonata). Both consisted of a succession of slow and quick movements (a slow movement being sometimes followed by two quick move-ments), mostly four or five in number, and generally all of them (with an occasional exception of one) in the same key. The difference between the sonata da chiesa and the sonata da camera has been roughly indicated by Brossard, who wrote at the beginning of the eighteenth century, as follows: "The move-ments of the former are adagios, largos, Sec, alternated witb fugues [rather pieces in the fugal style], which form its allegros ; whilst the movements of the latter are composed, after the adagios, of airs of a regulated movement, such as an Allemande, a Courante, a Sarabande, a Gigue, or, after a Prelude, an Allemande, an adagio, a Gavotte, a Dourree, or a Minuet" Scantiness of space, which forbids to give a more detailed account of these forms, does not admit of even a passing notice of other obsolete contemporary, earlier, and later kinds of sonata (for instance, of Domenico Scarlatti's one-movement sonatas).
The form which we are now accustomed to connect with the idea of a sonata was developed in the course of the eighteenth century. A sonata may have four, three, and two movements. Sonatas of two movements, common in the last century, are now very rare. The first movement, generally an allegro, sometimes preceded by a short slow introduction, is in what is called sonata-form, which was illustrated and analysed in the Introduction, pp. 30—38. A recapitulation of what has been said there and a few additional remarks will therefore suffice here. The disposition of a first sonata movement is generally as follows :— I. Exposition.
(a) First subject.
(b) Transition to
{{) Second subject (if the first subject is in major,
the second is in the major key of the domi-
nant ; if the first subject is in minor, the second
is in the parallel major key—for instance : if
the first subject is in C major, the second is in
G major; if the first is in A minor, the second
is in C major).
(d) Conclusion (generally in the key of the second
subject, and often modulating to the key of
the first subject).
. / II. Development of the two subjects or of parts of them.
£ 1 This division is also called "working-out section."
< I III. Restatement of the first division, consisting of
/ (a) First subject (in the original key).
§ \ {b) Transition to
O I (c) Second subject (in the same key as the first
_M I subject).
M V id) Conclusion (in the key 01 the first subject).

It has, however, to be kept in mind that the subjects are often groups of themes rather than one theme; that episodes bome-times intervene between the above-mentioned parts; that the transitions may be suppressed or confined to a few notes ; that in light-textured sonatas a free middle section woven out of new material takes the place of a regular development [v. Sonatina); that other contrasts of keys than those specified are permissible and of frequent occurrence, &c. &c
The last movement may be in the same form as the first movement, or in rondo-form (v. Rondo), or in the form of a theme with variations. Where there is only one other movt ment this is generally a stow movement. It may be in a simple song-form (q.v.), or in the form, less developed, however, of the first movement; further, it may be a theme with varia-tions, and even a rondo, which latter case, however, is ex-ceptional. When the sonata consists of four movements one of the middle movements is either a minuet {q.v.) or a scherzo (q.v.). Instead of the scherzo, which may precede or follow the slow movement, one finds also occasionally some other piece of a sprightly character.
The several movements of a sonata are in different but related keys, and between them must be also a kinship of contents. The word sonata is applied to works of the described construction if written for pianoforte or organ alone, or for pianoforte with another instrument. Such works for two other instruments are generally called duets, and for more instruments they are called trios, quartets, quintets, &c. Formerly one made use of the expression sonata a due, a tre, &c.—i.e., sonata for two, three, &c., instruments. A symphony is a grand sonata for- orchestra. The noblest kind of overture is that in the sonata form.
Sonata da camera and Sonata da chiesa (It.), v. Sonata.
Sonate (Fr. and Ger.). A sonata.
Sonatina (It.), Sonatina (Fr. and Ger.). A short, light, simple kind of sonata. Sonatina is the diminutive of sonata. By sonatina-form is meant the first-movement form of a sonata without the middle division—the development, or working-out section—instead of which a few intervening passages or bars are introduced. Many sonatas, overtures, &c., are in this form. Mozart's sonatas, for instance, furnish examples.
Sonatore (It.). A player, an instrumental performer.
Sonevole (It.). Sounding, resounding, sonorous.

Song, (i) "That which is sung or uttered with musical modulations of the voice, whether of the human voice or that of a bird " (Webster's Dictionary). (2) Vocal music generally. (3) A lyrical poem intended to be sung, and the musical setting of such a poem.
The term song is vulgarly applied to any tune set to any kind of words. But a perfect song is a poetico-musical crystallisation of


a mood or an emotion. One distinguishes two classes of songs : folk-songs and art-songs. Another division is that into strof>hh songs (in which the musical setting of one strophe serves foi all the others) and " through-composed" songs (in which each strophe has a different musical setting). Folk-songs are always strophic; art-songs are either strophic or "through-composed." Song-form. This convenient, if not altogether unobjectionable, term has been applied to musical compositions, instrumental as well as vocal, that have only one principal thought, which presents itself either as an elaborate strain, or as a period (with protasis and apodosis), or also as a period so to speak broken up into two or three parts (the third part being mostly a repetition of the first)." Most songs have this form, and dances, marches, and other pieces are complexes of musical thoughts in this form.
Soni alterati (Lat. and It.). Chromatically altered notes. Sonneries (Fr.). Trumpet signals. Sono (It.). Sound. Sonoramente (It.). Sonorously. Sonoro (It.). Sonorous.
Sons harmoniques (Fr.). Harmonics, flageolet tones SonUS (Lat.). Sound.
Sopra (It.). On, upon, above.—Sopra dominantc, the upper fifth, or fifth degree of the scale; sopra tonica, the supertonic, the second degree of the scale.—Sopra una corda, on one string.— Come sopra, as above.
Sopran (Ger.). Soprano.
Sopranist (Ger.). A soprano singer, more especially a male soprano.
Soprano (It.). The highest kind of voice. The average compass
of a soprano, or treble, voice is from C1 to a", higher voices reach
up to c'", and exceptional voices even to g'", and higher
still. The average compass of the mezzo-soprano, which is a lower soprano, and of a fuller and more mellow quality, extends from a to/"; higher voices reach up to a", ¿¡7". One distinguishes two kinds of sopranos : the soprano dratnmatico and the soprano leggiero, the peculiarity of the former being power, that of the latter, as the name implies, lightness. There are further to be distinguished the soprano voice of women, of boys, and of men, the male soprani being again divisible into falsetti (soprani naturali) and castrati. The term soprano is applied to the possessor of such a voice as well as to the voice itself.
Soprano clef. The C clef on the first line. [v. Introduction, pp. 5 and 6.)
Soprano naturale (It.). A falsetto, a male soprano who produces the notes of the highest kind of female voice with the head-voice. Sorda(lt.). v. Sordo. Sordamente (It.), Muffled, veiled.

Sordino (It.). (I) A mute (q.v.). Sordini is the plural form of the word. — Con sordino, with the mute; con sordini with the mutes.—But sordini applies also to the pianoforte dampers, senza sordini (without dampers) indicating that the so-called loud pedal has to be pressed down (these expressions applied originally to stops). Further, sordino was the name of a contrivance for damping the strings of the pianoforte by means of a strip of leather. (2) The name of sordino is also applied to the pocket-fiddle, or kit.
Sordo, m., Sorda, f. (It.). Muffled, veiled.
Sordone (It.), Sordun (Ger.). (1) An obsolete bassoon-like instrument. (2) Sordun is also the name of an obsolete muffled reed-stop in the organ. (3) The name of sordun is likewise given to a trumpet mute which damps the sound and raises the pitch one tone.
Sorgfältig'(Ger.). Careful.
Sortita (It.). First entrance of a character of an opera on the stage; his or her opening cavatina or aria, &c.
Sospirando, or Sospirante (It.). Sighing, longing. Sospirevole, or Sospiroso (It.). Full of sighs, doleful. Sostenendo and Sostenente (It.). Sustaining. Sostenuto (It.). Sustained.
SottO (It.). Under, below, beneath.—Sot to voce, in an undertone.
Sotto dominante, subdominant. Soubrette (Fr.). A lady's maid, an abigail; a female performer of
light, merry, intriguing parts in comic operas. Soufflerie (Fr.). (1) Place where the organ bellows are. (2) The
whole wind-providing apparatus of an organ. Soufflets (Fr.). Bellows.
Souffleur (Fr.). (1) A prompter. (2) A Souffleur d'orgue is an organ blower.
Sound, v. Introduction, § II., p. 2 ; and the articles Acoustics and Harmonics.
Sound-board, or Sounding-board. (1) The broad piece of
wood, also called belly, over which the strings are stretched, and which reinforces their vibrations communicated to it through the bridge, {v. Pianoforte.) (2) That part of the organ into which the lower ends of the pipes are inserted. (3) A wooden structure above or behind a pulpit, &c., erected for the purpose of collect-ing and reflecting the sound of a speaker's voice, &c.
Sound-body, or Sound-box. The hollow bodies of instruments such as the violin, guitar, harp, &c.
Sound-boles. The holes in the bellies of stringed instruments.
Sound-post. The cylindrical piece of wood which stands behind the bridge and in the sound-box of instruments of the violin class, connecting belly and back.
Soupir (Fr.). A crotchet rest.—Demi-soupir, a quaver rest ; quart de soupir, semiquaver rest; demi-quart de soupir, demisemi-quaver rest; seizicme de soupir, semidemiseminuaver rest


Sourdeline (Fr.). A kind of bagpipe.
Sourdine (Fr.). A mute. {v. Mute and Sordino.)
SOUS (Fr.). Under.—Sous dominante, subdominant.
Spaces. The intervals between the lines of the stave, (v. In
traduction, § III., p. 3.) Spagnoletta (It.). A Spanish dance.
Spagnolo, or Spagnuolo, m., Spagnola, or Spagnuola, I
(It.). Spanish. Spalla (It.). Shoulder, (v. Viola da spalla.) Spartito (It.), Spart (Ger.). A score.
Spassapensiero (It.). (1) Diversion, amusement. (2) A Jew's-harp.
Spasshaffc (Ger.). Jocular, merry, droll.
Spatium (Lat.). A space between the lines of the stave.
Spianato, m., Spianata, f. (It.). Even, smooth ; lit., *' levelled."
Spiccato (It.). Distinctly detached.
Spielart (Ger.). Manner, style, of playing.
Spielen (Ger.). To play.
Spieler (Ger.). A player.
Spielmanieren (Ger.). Instrumental ornaments, graces. Spinge (Lat.). Lit., "thorns." The quills of a harpsichord and spinet.
Spinet. A small kind of harpsichord with only one string to each note. But while the spinet resembles the harpsichord in its mechanism, it differs from it in its form, being rectangular, triangular, pentangular, &c, or somewhat wing-shaped but with the keyboard placed transversely. In England rectangular (oblong-square) spinets were commonly called Virginals, (P. Harpsichord.)
Spinett (Ger.), Spinetta (It.). A spinet.
Spinettchen (Ger.). An octave stop of keyboard stringed instru-ments, (v. Ottavina.)
Spirito (It.). Spirit.—Con spirito, with spirit, spirited.
Spiritosamente (It.). Spiritedly.
SpiritoSO (It.). Spirited.
Spirituale (It.), Spirituel (Fr.). Spiritual.
Spitzfldte (Ger.). "Pointed flute." An organ stop of 8 or 4-feet pitch.
Spitzharfe (Ger.). "Pointed harp." A small harp with two sound-boards and two rows of strings—the one row of steel wire, the other of brass wire. This instrument is also called arpanetta (small harp) and arpa doppia (double harp).
Spondee. A metrical foot of two long syllables:
Sprung (Ger.). A skip.
Stabat Mater (Lat.). The name and the first two words of a
Roman Catholic Latin hymn. It is one of the sequences. Stabile (It.). Stable, firm.
Staccatissimo (It.). Very detached. This is the superlative ot

Staccato (It.). Detached. Staff. The same as stave (g.v.). Staggione (It.). Season.
Stammakkord (Ger.). A fundamental, not an inverted, chord. Stampita (It.). An air, song, strain, sonata. Ständchen (Ger.). A serenade. Stanghetta (It.). A bar-line.
Stanza (It.). A division of a poem consisting of several lines grouped according to a certain plan, which may be either purely metrical or include both measure and rhyme.
Stark (Ger.). Strong; loud.—Stark und kräftig, loud and vigorous.
Stave. Parallel horizontal lines on, above, and below which the notes are placed. There are or have been staves of four, five, six, ten, &c, lines. The common five-lined stave is described in the Introduction, § III., p. 3, &c.
Stecher (Ger.). A sticker.
Steg (Ger.). The bridge of instruments of the violin class, and also
of the pianoforte. Stem. The perpendicular line affixed to the head of notes. Stentando (It.). Delaying, as if held back or labouring under
difficulties. Stentato (It.). Laboured, studied. Sterbend (Ger.). Dying away. The same as morendo. Steso (It.). Extended; diffuse; large. Stesso (It.). The same.
Sticcato (It.). Xylophone, or Strohfiedel (q.v.).
Sticker. A part of the organ action which intervenes between the
key and pallet, (v. Organ.) Stiel (Ger.). Stem of a note. Stil (Ger.), Stile (It.). Style. Stillgedackt (Ger.). A soft-toned organ stop. Stimme (Ger.). (1) Voice. (2) Organ stop. (3) Part, either
vocal or instrumental. (4) Sound-post. Stimmführung (Ger.). " Conduct of the parts," part-writing. Stimmgabel (Ger.). Tuning-fork.
Stimmhammer (Ger.). Tuning-key, or tuning-hammer. Stimmhorn (Ger.). Tuning-cone, an instrument used for tuning
the metal pipes of organs. Stimmstock (Ger.). Sound-post. Stimmumfang (Ger.). Compass of a voice.
Stimmung (Ger.). (1) The act of tuning, or the state of being in tune or at a certain pitch.—Stimmung halten, to keep in tune. (2) Mood, frame of mind.
Stimmweite (Ger.). Compass, ambitus.
Stimmwerkzeuge (Ger.). Vocal organs.
Stimmzange (Ger.). "Tuning-tongs," an instrument for tuning
_ the reed-pipes of organs. Stinguendo (It.). Dying away,


Stiracchiato, Stirato (It.). Lit., "strained, dragged with
violence." Holding back, retarding the movement. Stonante (It). Dissonant.
Stop. (I) This word means, in connection with the organ : (a) a handle by drawing out which a row of pipes corresponding with one of the keyboards can be brought into play, and (d) the row of pipes itself. Stops may be complete or incomplete; the former comprise a pipe for each note of the keyboard, the latter only for a part of the keyboard. Not all stops are "sounding stops"— i.e., stops acting on pipes; for instance, the "couplers" are not. In connection with the harmonium and similar instru-ments the word applies to a handle and to the set of reeds on which that handle acts. But here again not all stops are " sounding stops "—the " expression stop," for instance, is not. Nor does the tremolo stop act on a set of reeds. The old key-board stringed instruments had also stops; by means of them the tone could be modified or an effect added. (2) Pressure of the finger on a string for the purpose of shortening its vibrating length. Closing an aperture in the tube of a wood wind instru-ment. Stopping in these cases is synonymous with fingering. In connection with the horn and some other brass wind instru-ments, stopping means inserting the hand in the bell for the purpose of modifying the pitch, (v. Horn.)
Stopped. Stopped pipes are pipes closed at the top. What stopped notes are is explained in the latter part of the last article and under Horn.
Stopping, v. Stop.
Storto (It.). Crooked, twisted.
StraCCiacalando (It.). Prattling, chattering.
Stracinando (It.). v. Strascinando.
Strain. In popular parlance strain may mean : a prolonged note, a tune, and a portion of a tune. In technical language the word has been applied to one or more periods of a musical compo-sition terminated by a double bar, and also to various subdivi-sions of a period.
Strascicando, Strascinando (It.). Dragging.
Strathspey. A spirited Scotch dance in ^ time, which is distin-guished from the even-paced Reel by a somewhat slower move-ment and the alternation of dotted quavers and semiquavers.
Stravagante (It.). Extravagant, fantastical, eccentric.
Stravaganza (It.). An extravagant, fantastical composition.
Streichinstrument (Ger.). Stringed instrument. Streichinstru-mente is the plural form of the word.
Streichquartett (Ger.). String quartet.
Streichtrio (Ger.). A string trio.
Streichzither (Ger.). A zither played with a bow.
Streng (Ger.). Strict, severe.
Strepito (It.). Noise.

Strepitosamente (It.). Noisily. Strepitoso (It.). Noisy, loud.
Stretta (It.). Lit., "a squeezing, a pressing." A name given to the concluding movement of an operatic piece—of a finale, an intro-duction, &c. Here the time is quickened, and the most powerful effects are brought into play so as to produce a climax.
Stretto (It.). Lit., "narrow, close,"and "a narrowplace ; straits." Also "pressed, drawn together." The word is derived from stringere, to press, to tie tight, to draw near. Stretto has the meaning of "quickened in time." The stretto of a fugue is that part in which subject and answer are drawn close together—i.e., where the latter does not wait till the end of the former, but enters earlier.
Strich (Ger.). Stroke of the bow.
Stringed instruments. The most important of them may be divided into three classes : those the strings of which are plucked with the fingers or a plectrum, like the harp, guitar, lute, mando-line, &c.; those which are played upon with a bow, like the violin, violoncello, &c.; and those which are acted upon through a keyboard, like the harpsichord, clavichord, and pianoforte. In the last class, however, we must again distinguish those in which the strings are plucked by plectra, or quills (harpsichord, spinet, &c.), those in which the strings are struck by tangents (clavichord, &c.), and those in which the strings are struck by hammers (pianoforte). This classification leaves out of account such instruments as the dulcimer, the anemochord, the hurdy-gurdy, and the Bogenjlugel (bow-piano).
Stringendo (It.). Lit., "drawing together." Quickening the time.
String instruments. The same as Stringed Instruments
String quartet. A composition in sonata-form (v. Sonata) for two
violins, viola, and violoncello. String trio. A composition in sonata-form (v. Sonata) for violin,
viola, and violoncello, or for two violins and violoncello. Strieciando (It.). Gliding. Strofa(It.). A strophe.
Strohfledel (Ger.). Lit., "straw-fiddle." An instrument con-sisting of a graduated series of bars of wood that lie on cords of twisted straw and are struck with sticks.
Strombettare (It.). To sound a trumpet.
Strombettiere (It.). A trumpeter.
Stromentato (It.). Instrumented, scored for instruments.
Stromento (It.). Instrument.—Stromenti da corda, stringed in-struments; stromenti da arco, bow instruments; stromenti da Jiato, wind instruments; stromenti da tasto, keyboard instruments ; stromenti da percossa, percussion instruments ; stromenti di legnOs wood instruments; stromenti di metallo, metal instru ments.


Strophe. A division of a poem consisting of several lines grouped according to a certain plan, which may be either purely metrical or include both measure and rhyme. In the Greek drama a strophe was what the chorus sang in turning from the right to the left, and an antistrophe what it sang in turning from the left to the right. The epode followed after these two. The literal meaning of strophe is "a turning."
Stück (Ger.). Apiece.
Studie (Ger.). Study.—Studien, studies, (v. Etude.)
Studio (It.). A Study.
Stufe (Ger.). A degree.—Stufen, degrees.
Stürmisch (Ger.). . Impetuous, furious.
Stürze (Ger.). The bell of wind instruments.
Su(It.). On, upon.
Suave (It.). Sweet, pleasant, delicious, gentle. Suavemente (It.). Sweetly, pleasantly, gently, deliciously. Sub (Lat.). Under.
SubbaSS. A pedal stop in the organ of 16 or 32-feet pitch. Subdiapente. The "under-fifth."
Subdominant. The "under-fifth." The fourth degree of a scale. Subitamente (It.). Quickly, suddenly.
Subito (It.). Quick, sudden, immediately.—Volti subito, turn over [the leaf] quickly.
Subject. The principal theme of a fugue or any other musical com-position, (v. Introduction, pp. 33—38, the articles Sonata and Rondo.)
Submediant. The third below the key-note, the sixth degree ol the scale.
Subprincipal. An organ stop of 32-feet pitch. Subsemifusa (Lat.). A demisemiquaver note. Subsemitone. The leading note (q.v.). Subsemitonium modi (Lat.). The leading note (q.v.). Subtonic. The leading note (q.v.).
Succentor (Lat.). (1) A sub-chanter, a deputy of the precentor,
(2) A bass singer. Sufflöte (Ger.). The same as Sifflbtc. Bui (It.). r..SuL
Suite (Fr.). A series, a set, i.e., a series, or set, of pieces (suite de püces). In the earlier part of the eighteenth century and anterior to that time a suite consisted in most cases of dances, to which, however, was often added a Prelude as an introductory first piece. Other pieces than dances were also occasionally interspersed—for instance, in some of J. S. Bach's suites we find an Air. As to the dances, they were artistically treated, differing from those intended to be danced to both in form and style, and not unfrequently also in character. Bach's Suites Anglaises all open with a Prelude, but his Suites Francaises are without such an introductory piece. The first of Bach's Suites

Anglaises contains the following pieces : (I) Prelude ; (2) Alle mande; (3) Courante ; (4) Sarabande; (5) Bourree; (6) Gigue. Instead of the Bourree we find in others of the master's suites a Gavotte, or a Menuet, or a Passepied. The Allemande is gene-, rally the first of the dances ; the order and selection of the other dances were less settled, but the Courante and Sarabande were very common as the second'and third constituents, as was also the Gigue as the last. Other dances to be met with in suites are the Loure, Anglaise, Polonaise, Pavane, &c. As a rule the pieces are all in the same key. Their number differed. In recent times composers have taken the suite again into favour. But the modern suite is more varied than the old ; its consti-tuents comprise not only dances of the past and present, but also characteristic pieces of all sorts, even fugues. It need hardly be added that the moderns do not, like their forefathers, adhere to unity of key.
SuivSZ (Fr.). Follow. A direction to the accompanist or accom-panists to accommodate themselves to the solo singer or player.
Sujet (Fr.). A subject, or theme.
Sul, SUIT, Sulla, sui, SUgli, Sulle (It.). On Vne.—Sulponticello, near the bridge (a direction to players of bow instruments); sulla corda, on the string ; sulla tastiera, on the finger-board.
Summation, or Summational, tones, v. Resultant tones.
Suonare (It.). The same as Sonare.
Suonata and Suonatina (It-). The same as Sonata and Sona-tina.
Suoni armonici (It.). Harmonics. Flageolet tones. Suono (It.). Sound. Super (Lat.). Above, over.
Superacutse claves, or voces, or Superacuta loca (Lat.).
The five highest notes of the hexachordal system. Superdominant. The note above the dominant, the sixth degree of the scale.
Superfluous intervals. The same as Augmented intervals. Supei'OOtave. (1) An organ stop two octaves higher in pitch than
the diapasons. (2) Also a coupler which causes keys an octave
higher than those struck to be pulled down. Supertonic. The note above the tonic, the second degree of the
Supplichevole (It.). Supplicant, entreating. Suppliohevolmente (It.). Entreatingly, in a supplicant manner. Sur (Fr.). On, upon, over. Surdelina (It.). A kind of bagpipe.
Suspended cadence. The same as interrupted cadence.
Suspension. A suspension is a note which delays the entrance of a harmonic note—i.e., of a note which forms a constituent of a chord. If the suspended note appears in the preceding chord as a harmonic note it is said to be prepared {a), the whole pro-cess consisting of the three stages : preparation, percussion, and


resolution of the discord. If the suspended note dees not appeal in the preceding chord as a harmonic note it is said to be un-prepared or free {/>). Suspensions, which may occur in any part, are said to be double when two, and triple when three notes are suspended.

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if- «s—1 o i s II
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Suspirium (Lat.). A crotchet rest. SilSS (Ger. ). Sweet, sweetly.
Susurrando, or Susurrante (It.). Murmuring, whispering.
Svegliato (It.). Brisk, lively, sprightly. Svelto (It.). Free, easy, nimble.
Swell. A contrivance in the organ by which a crescendo and de-crescendo can be produced. It consists of a number of rows of pipes in a box with shutters that can be opened and closed by the player by means of a pedal. This box and number of rows of pipes with the corresponding keyboard, draw-stops, &c., is called the Swell Organ.
Symphonia (Gk.). (i) Agreement in sound, consonance. (2) A bagpipe. This name was applied in the middle ages to a variety of instruments: the hurdy-gurdy, a keyboard instrument, &c.— (3) A composition for several voices or instruments, or for both voices and instruments, (v. Symphony. )
Symphonisch (Ger.). (i) Symphonious, harmonious, consonant. (2) Symphonic—i.e., in the style of a symphony.
Symphonische Dichtung (Ger.). A symphonic poem. An orchestral composition with a poetic basis (a programme) and of a free form—the latter being determined by the subject, not by rule and custom. Liszt is the originator of the kind and the name. Before him Berlioz had written symphonies with a poetic basis and differing more or less from the orthodox compositions of that appellation. Nevertheless Liszt was an orignator of more than the name, for his symphonic poems are peculiar in various ways, especially in these two: their continuity (they are not broken up into separate divisions) and the extensive employment of transformation of themes (melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic modification of the themes for the purpose of changing their expression). This latter serves to give unity to the various constituents of the composition.
Symphony. The Greek word symphonia (syn, with ; phone, tone) signified "consonance." In ancient times and in the middle ages it was also the name of various instruments : the bagpipe.
the hurdy-gurdy, a kind of clavicytherium, Sec. As early as the sixteenth century it was used as the designation of compositions for several voices or instruments, or voices and instruments. Later the application of the name was confined to instrumental compositions, more especially to introductory pieces. The Italians still use the word sinfonia instead of overture ; and in this country the word symphonies is used in the sense of ritor-nelli—i.e., introductory, intervening, and concluding instru-mental passages in vocal compositions. But the most important and frequent signification of the word is that of an orchestral composition in four movements and in sonata-form. All infor-mation as to the construction of a symphony will be found under Sonata. If there is a difference between a sonata and a sym-phony, it is the vaster proportions, the fuller elaboration, the richer and profounder contents of the latter, which are conditioned by the superiority of its resources, the many and various instru-ments of the orchestra. To what has been said under Sonata may be added here that the first allegro, the first of the four divisions of the symphony, is oftener preceded by a slow intro-duction than that of the sonata. The movements, or some of them, have, since about the middle of this century, been some-times made to run into each other without a break. Sym-phonies with more or less than four movements (or rather divisions) are exceptional. The rise of our symphonies dates from about the middle of the eighteenth century ; the greatest masters in this form were and are Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Raft", and Brahms. Ber-lioz's symphonic compositions are works of great power, but too unlike the symphonies of these masters to be classed with them. Still farther removed are Liszt's Symphonic Poems, (v. Sym-phonische Dichtung.) Syncopation. "A contraction." A rhythmical arrangement by which the unaccented part of a bar (a) or unaccented part of a member of a bar (b) is tied to the accented part, and the accent thereby displaced or set aside.

1 r
Syncope. The same as Syncopation. Syncopiren (Ger.). To syncopate. Syntonolydian. v. Hypolydian.

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Middle Ages Music
Renaissance Music
Baroque Era Music
Classical Era Music
Romantic Era Music
Nationalist Era Music
Turn of Century Music

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