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-- R --

Rabbia (It.). Fury, violent passion.—Con rabbia, furiously, very passionately.
Rackett, or Rankett (Ger.). (I) A family of wood wind instru-ments long ago obsolete. (2) Obsolete organ stops generally of reed-pipes of 8 or 16-feet pitch.
Rackettfagott (Ger.). A kind of bassoon, an improvement of the Rackett, introduced by Christ. Denner at the beginning of the last century.
Racier (Fr.). To scrape.—Racleur, a scraper. These words are used in speaking of bad playing on, and bad players of, stringed instruments.
Raddolcendo, Raddolcente (It.). Becoming softer, growing gentler, sweeter.
Raddoppiamento (It.). (1) Doubling the notes of chords. (2)
Multiplying the copies of parts. Raddoppiato (It.). Doubled. Rallentamento (It.). A slackening of the time. Rallentando (It.). Gradually slackening the time, moderating the

Ranz des vaches (Fr.). A tune or melodic strain sung, or played on their horns, by the Swiss herdsmen when driving the cattle out or in.
Bapidamente (It.). Rapidly. Rapido(It-). Rapid.
Rasch (Ger.). Quick.—Noch rascher, still more quickly.—So rasch
wie möglich, as quick as possible. Räthselcanon (Ger.). An enigmatical canon. Ratio (Lat. ). Proportion, relation of one thing to another as regards
number, magnitude, &c. Rattenendo, Rattenuto (It.). Holding back, slackening. Rauh (Ger.). Rugged, harsh, hoarse.
Rauscher, also called Schwärmer (Ger.). A passage in which each tone or every two tones alternately an? several times repeated.
Rauschflöte, Rauschpfeife, or Rauschwerk (Ger.). A
mixture stop of two ranks of pipes sounding the twelfth and fifteenth, being of 2% and 2-feet pitch. Rawivando (It.). Reanimating. — Ravvivando il tempo, accelerat-ing the time.
Re. (1) The second of the Aretinian syllables. (2) Tlie n^ine of the
note D in Italy and some other countries. Ré (Fr.). The French name of the note D. \v. Re.) Rebec, or Rebek. A primitive kind of violin Ré bémol (Fr.). D flat. Re bemolle (It.). D flat.
Recht (Ger.). Right.—Rechte Hand, right hand.
Récit (Fr.). (1) What is performed by one singer 01 one instru-mentalist, a vocal or instrumental solo. (2) The principal part in a piece of concerted music. (3) One of the manuals and corresponding stops of the organ, the Swell Organ.
Recitando (It.). Speaking rather than singing, in the style of recitation.
Récitant (Fr.). He who sings or plays a solo part. The feminine
form of the word is récitante. Récitatif (Fr.). Recitative, {v. Recitativo.)
Recitativo (It.). Recitative. A mode of expression intermediate between speaking and singing. The recitativo parlando is that kind which approaches most nearly speech. A recitativo secct is accompanied by a few plain chords, the recitativo accom-pagnato, or obbligato, or stromentato (Fr. accompagné and obligé), has a more important accompaniment. Except in the recitativo a tempo, the singer is entirely free from the fetters of time.
Réciter (Fr.). To sing or play singly, to perform a solo part. Reciting note. The note on which in chanting most of the wordi
of a verse are sung. In Gregorian Chant this note is the
dominint. (v. Chant, and Dominant.)


Recorder. An obsolete instrument of the flute kind, one of the
species direct flute, flûte à bec. Recte (Lat.). In a straight line; rightly.—Per recte et retro, by
retrogression. Rectus (Lat.). Motus rectus, similar motion. Ré dièse (Fr.). D sharp.—Ré dièse mineur, D sharp minor. Re diesis (It.). D sharp.—Re diesis minore, D sharp minor. Redita, or Reddita (It.). A return, a repeat.
Redowa, Redowak, Redowazka. A Bohemian dance in \
time resembling the Mazurka. An older form alternated between \ and \ time.
Reduciren (Ger.), Réduire (Fr.). Lit., "to reduce." To arrange a work in many parts for fewer.
Reeds. Slips of cane or metal which are set in vibration by the breath of the player or the wind of bellows. The oboe, bassoon, and clarinet have reeds of cane—the first two a double reed, the third a single reed. The harmonium and the reed-pipes of the organ have metal reeds : those of the former are free reeds, those of the latter are beating, or striking, reeds. Both these kinds of reeds are placed in front of apertures and fixed at one of their ends ; but the free reed is smaller than the aperture and can move hither and thither, while the beating reed is larger and consequently can move only one way.
Reel. A spirited dance especially in favour with the Scotch, and either of Norwegian or Celtic origin. It is generally in ^, sometimes however in % time.
Refrain. A burden—one or several words that are repeated at the end of each stanza of a song, ballad, or other poetical com-position.
Regal, (i) The name of an obsolete kind of very small organ with one or two reed-stops. (2) The word occurs also in connection with the names of various reed-stops in large organs.
Regel (Ger.). Rule.—Regel der Octave, rule of the octave.
Regens chori (Lat.). Conductor of a church choir.
Register. (1) Thus are named the several parts of the compass of the human voice, and also of wind instruments, marked by their distinctive timbres. For instance, the chest, medium, and head registers of the human voice, the chalumeau register of the clarinet. In connection with the organ this word has two significations, one of them is synonymous with "stop." (2) A part of the mechanism of the organ, a board through which pass and which steadies long trackers.
Register (Ger.). An organ stop, that is, the rank of pipes belonging to a stop.—Registerzug, a draw-stop, that part of the mechanism of the organ which acts upon the sliders.
Registration. The art of using the stops of the organ, of selecting and combining them.
Registriren (Ger.). To use the stops of an organ.

Registrimng (Ger.). Registration.
Règie de l'octave (Fr.). Rule of the octave.
Rem (Ger.). Pure, clear ; perfect ; correct as regards intonation.
Relatio non harmonica (Lat.)'. False relation.
. G major. E? major.
Relation of keys. Opinions widely diverge on the subject of key-relation, and none of them is justified by a wholly satis-factory principle. Here is one of the most simple of the theories hitherto set forth. Those chords of a key are nearest related which have one or more notes in common. Similarly those keys are nearest related whose chords of the tonic have one or more notes in common. From this follows that the keys whose tonics coincide with or lie a fifth or third above or below the tonic of a key are nearest related to that key. The following tables are from C. F. Weitzmann's "Harmoniesystem." It will be seen that he excludes the minor dominant key of a major key (G minor), and the major subdominant key of a minor key (Ü major), invalidating thereby the principle.
MAJOR. C major.
F minor. F major. A minor. I E minor A major. | E major C minor.
At? major.
MINOR. A minor.
D minor. F major. I C major. E minor. E major. F minor. I C minor. A major.
Fj minor. Cjjl minor.
An older and more widely current theory is that the keys in the first degree of relationship to a major key are the major keys a perfect fifth above and below it, and the relative and tonic minor keys (for instance, to C major : G major and F major, and A minor and C minor) ; to a minor key, the minor keys a perfect fifth above and below it, and the relative and tonic major keys (for instance, to A minor: E minor and D minor, and C major and A major). If one of the related keys is made the centre of such a group, we get the keys in the second degree of relationship to the first key ; and so on.
Other theorists again say that related (ah" called attendant and auxiliary) keys are those whose tonic chord is a reiative chord (a chord consisting of notes belonging to the scale of the key under consideration)—for instance, of C major : D minor, E minor, F major, G major, and A minor.
A description of all the existing theories and a discussion of their inconsistencies and insufficiencies cannot be undertaken in a Concise Dictionary.

Religiosamente (It.)- Religiously, devoutly. Religioso (It.). Religious, devout. Relish, v. Double Relish.
Remplissage (Fr.). The filling up—namely, the middle parts.
Used in a bad sense it means middle parts added unnecessarily
and unskilfully. Rentrée (Fr.). The re-entry of a part after a rest. Renversement (Fr.). Inversion.
Renvoi (Fr.). Lit., "sending back." The sign ('$:) which sends the performer back to a similar sign in an earlier part of the piece, {v. Dal segno and Al segno. )
Repercussio (Lat.). Repercussion. The reappearance of the subject of a fugue after the exposition, (v. Fugue.)
Répétition (Fr.). (I) Repetition. (2) Rehearsal.
Repetitore (It.). A rehearser, a private teacher.
Repetizione (It.), v. Ripetizione.
Replica (It.). (I) A repeat. (2) Answer.—Senza replica, without repetition.
Replicato (It.). (1) Repeated. (2) Doubled.
Réplique (Fr.). (1) Octave. (2) Answer. (3) The interval re-sulting from an inversion. (4) Small notes inserted in a part foi the guidance of the performer.
Reply. The answer in a fugue.
Répons (Fr.). A response (q.v.).
Réponse (Fr.). Reply, answer.
Repos (Fr.). Repose, rest, pause. Termination of a musical phrase or period.
Reprise (Fr.). (1) A repeat. (2) The resumption of a work not performed for some time ; a revival.
Requiem (Lat.). A mass for the dead. Its musical divisions are: (1) The introit Requiem œternam ; (2) the Kyrie ; (3) the tract Absolve ; (4) the sequence Dies ira ; (5) the offertorium Domine Jesu Christe; (6) the Sanctus; (7) the Benedictus; (8) the Agnus Dei ; (9) the communion Lux aterna.
Resin, v. Rosin.
Reservoir. A store for compressed air, a part of the wind-provid-ing apparatus of the organ and harmonium.
Resolution. The succession of a concord to a discord, the passing of a dissonant into a consonant chord, {v. Introduction, p. 16.)
Resonance. (1) Reflection, reverberation of sound. (2) Rein-forcement of sound by other bodies than those from which it originated. Thus, for instance, the sound-board (resonance-board) of the pianoforte and the sound-box (resonance-box) of the violin, owing to their broad elastic surface, reinforce the vibra-tions imparted to them through the bridge by the strings, and in reinforcing the vibrations reinforce of course the sound.
Jtiesonanzboden (Ger. ). Rescmar.ce-board, sound-board.

Respiro (It.)' A semiquaver rest.
Response. (1) Both in the Roman Catholic and Protestant Church the reply of the choir or congregation to what the priest or minister sings. (2) A kind of anthem sung by the choir in the services of the Roman Catholic Church called the Canonical Hours. (3) The answer in a fugue.
Respoiisorium (Lat.). Response, [v. 1 and 2 of the preceding article.)
Restrictio (Lat.). The stretto of a fugue.
Rests. For the signs which indicate silence in musical notation see Introduction, p. 19, &c.
Resultant tones. Resultant tones are tones which are produced under certain circumstances when two tones of different pitch are sounded loudly and sustained simultaneously. There are two kinds of resultant tones : differential (or difference) tones, and summational (or summation) tones. The vibrations of the former are equal to the difference between the vibrations of the generating sounds (c'-g', for instance, producing c) ; the vibra-tions of the latter are equal to the sum of the vibrations of the generating sounds (t'-g', for instance, producing e").
Retardando (It.). Slackening the speed.
Retardation. (1) A gradual slackening of speed. (2) The lagging behind of one or more parts, so that whilst other parts pro-ceed to another chord they still pro'ong one or more notes of the preceding chord. The opposite of Retardation is An-ticipation.
Retraite (Fr.). The tattoo.
Retro (Lat.). Backwards, (v. Recte.)
Retrogrado (It.), Retrogradus (Lat.). Retrograde, backward.
Retto (It.). Right, straight. Moto retto, direct, or similar, motion.
Réveil (Fr. ). A reveille. A military morning signal which gives notice to the soldiers that it is time to rise.
Rhapsodie (Fr.). A rhapsody. Rhapsodies are often fantasias on popular airs or themes taken from operas or other art-works.
Rhytiim. Measured motion : a regular grouping of long and short, accented and unaccented, syllables or sounds. Rhythm has been defined by Mathys Lussy as "the disposition of the alternately strong and weak [accented and unaccented] sounds in such a way that at regular or irregular intervals one note brings to the ear the sensation of a rest, of a halt, of a close more or less complete. The notes between the two rests, two halts, constitute a rhythm, called by the Greeks kolon, or member of a rhythmical structure. The halts are called ictus." Rhythm has thus been sufficiently defined. Let us endeavour to define further a rhythm. It is a group of accented and un-accented notes which may be of the same length, but generally are of different lengths, and form a small organism, (v. Intro-duction, \\ X. and XI.)


Ricercata, or Ricercare (It.). (I) The more modern meaning of these words is : a fugue in which are employed the most learned devices of the contrapuntist—augmentations, diminu-tions, stretti, &c. This kind of fugue Germans call also Meisterfuge, master-fugue. (2) In earlier times the terms occur as the titles of instrumental pieces, mostly fugai, that may be classed with fantasias and capricci.
Ridotto (It.). Reduced, arranged, (v. Reduciren.)
Riga (It.). The stave.
Rigaildon, or Rigodon (Fr.). A Rigadoon, a very animated dance of French origin in duple time, ^ or J.
Rigore (It.). Rigour, strictness, exactness.—Con rigore, with strict-ness ; al rigore di tempo, in strict time.
Rigoroso (It.). Rigorous, exact, strict—for instance, as regards time.
Rilasciando, or Rilasciante (It.). Synonymous with rallen-tando.
Rinforzamento (It.). Reinforcement.
Rinforzando (It.). Reinforcing, laying an additional stress on a note.
Rinforzare (It.). To reinforce, to lay an additional stress on a
Rinforzato (It.). Reinforced, with an additional stress on a note. Rinforzo (It.). Reinforcement.—Per rinforzo, for the purpose of reinforcement.
Ripercussione (It.). Repercussion, (v. Repercussio). Ripetere (It.). To repeat.
Ripetizione (It.). Repetition.—Senza ripetizione, without repe-tition.
Ripienista (It.). Ripienist. (v. Ripieno.)
Ripieno (It.). Lit., "filling up." In musical terminology ripieno is used in contradistinction to solo, concertante, obbligato. A ripieno part is one that is executed by several performers, or is employed only in the tutti passages of a concerto or vocal coin-position. Ripienists are the performers of such parts. In scores ripieno is often used synonymously with tutti.
Ripresa (It.). A repetition, a repeat. In musical terminology more especially the sign mentioned under Dal segno (q.v.).
Risentito (It.). Lively, poignant, vigorous.—Stile risentito, a vigorous style.
Risolutamente (It.). Resolutely, determinately.
Risoluto (It.). Resolute, determinate.
Risoluzione (It.), (i) Resolution—for instance, of a dissonance.
(2) Determination. Risonanza (It.). Resonance. Risposta (It.). The answer in a fugue. Ristretto (It.). The stretto in a fugue, Risuonanza (It.). Resonance.

Risvegliato (It.)- Lively, animated.
Ritardando (It.). Gradually slackening the pace.
Ritardato (It.). This expression is used synonymously with
ritardando. Ritardo (It.). Retardation.
Ritenendo, or Ritenente, or Ritenuto (It.). Holding back,
held hack. Strictly speaking, these words signify "slackening the speed at once, assuming a slower pace ; according to the more common usage, they signify "gradually slackening the speed."
Ritornello (It.). (1) Rilornelli are the symphonies of accompanied vocal pieces, the instrumental preludes, interludes, and postludes. (2) Ritornello signifies also "repetition," and is the name of the sign called in English a "repeat." (3) The burden of a song. (4) An Italian popular form of poetry ; it consists of three lines.
As ritornello (diminutive of ritorno, return) signifies " re-petition," it should apply only to interludes and postludes which repeat part of what goes before, but the actual use of the word is as above mentioned. It is, however, also used in the sense of tutti in connection with instrumental solo pieces with accom-paniments.
RiV6i"SO (It. )o Reversed, as regards the motion of parts; it may
mean (1) contrary, and (2) retrograde. Rivolgfimento (It.). Inversion of the parts in double counterpoint. Rivoltato (It.). Inverted. Rivolto (It.). Inversion.
Rohr (Ger.). (I) Reed. (2) The double reed ol ihe oboe and bassoon.
Rohrflote (Ger.). Reed-flute, an organ stop.
Rohrwerk (Ger.). The reed-stops of an organ taken collectively.
Rolle (Ger.). A "rolling" passage of quick notes of equal value,
proceeding by degrees upwards and downwards. Rollo (It.). The roll of a drum.
Romano©. (1) An epico-lyrical poem, and a musical setting of such a poem. (2) An instrumental piece in the character of such a poem and setting. (3) In France the name of romance is given to any short simple song. (4) There are also instrumental pieces in imitation of this last kind of romance.
Romanesca (It.). An old dance tune, a kind of galliard.
Romantic. What is peculiar or similar to the literature and art of the middle ages, in contradistinction to classical, what is peculiar or similar to the literature and art of antiquity. The romantic comprehends the novel, uncommon, strange, fantastic, supernatural, and the like. "The real and proper use of the word," says Ruskin, "is simply an improbable or unaccustomed degree of beauty, sublimity, or virtue. Weber and Spohr are romanticists. Beethoven is at least as much a romanticist as


a classicist. But when we now speak of romanticists or the romantic school, we think of the composers that began to flourish in the second quarter of this century, of the neo-romanticists — Schumann, Chopin, Berlioz, Liszt, &c. {v. Classic.)
Romanza (It.), Romanze (Ger.). A romance. Ronde (Fr.). A semibreve.
Rondeau (Fr.). A rondo.
Rondinetto, Rondino, or Rondoletto (It.). A short rondo.
Rondo (It.), Rondeau (Fr.). The different poetical forms which go by the name of rondeau agree in this, that one or several words, one or several verses, generally the first, recur at certain points in the course of the poem and form its conclusion. In the varieties of musical rondos the same agreement exists. The simplest kind of rondo is that in which a principal theme is repeated after an intervening accessory one—an arrangement which may be clearly shown by the letters : a, b, a. Generally, however, the name of rondo is confined to those compositions in which the principal theme presents itself at least three times, and alternates with two accessory, or, as we may also call them, secondary themes. Thus, for instance : <z, b, a, c, a. Or thus : a b a, c, a b a. Or thus: a b, a, c, a b. In the last of these rondo-forms the theme b, which first appears in another key, reappears at the end in the principal key, the key of a. The above forms are not the only ones, but even these three are in-calculably variable by means of transitions, episodes, codas, and modifications of the repeated parts. For of course the great masters do not rest satisfied with leaning the parts against each other, but mould or at least join them into a whole. Rondos occur as independent pieces, and also as parts of sonatas, symphonies, &c. The last movement of such larger works is often a rondo, but the slow movement, too, has not unfre-quently one or the other rondo-form. Indeed, many pieces which do not bear the name are in this foim.
Rondoletto (It.). A short rondo.
Root. The fundamental note of a chord.
Rosalia (It.). The successive repetition of a melodic motive or phrase on several higher or lower degrees. Strictly speaking this nickname can only be applied when there is more than one immediately succeeding repetition, and each of them a trans-position one degree higher or lower.
Rosin. "The resin left after distilling off the volatile oil from the different species of turpentine." The rosin with which violin, viola, and violoncello players rub (and thereby roughen ihe surface of) their bows is not the ordinary rosin. The latter has to be purified before it becomes suitable for their purpose. Double bass players use a composition of ordinary rosin and white pitch.

Rota, Rotta, Rotte, Rote. The various forms of this word are etymologically connected with Chrotta and Crowd, and signify the same thing, or rather things, (v. Crowd.)
Rotondo (It.). Round.
Roulade (Fr.). An ornamentation consisting of a succession of quick notes sung to one syllable. The expression is also used in connection with instrumental music, but less properly.
Roulement (Fr.). A roll of the drum.
Round. (1) A canon at the unison or octave for three or more voices. (2) A circular dance, (v. Catch.)
Roundel, or Roundelay. (1) A poem in the rondo form. (2) A musical setting of such a poem, also a simple rustic melody. (3) A circular dance.
Rovesciameiito, or Rovescio (It.). (I) Reversion, contrary motion. Sometimes the word is used in the sense of retrograde, backward motion. Al rovescio^ by contrary motion— namely, when where one part ascends the other part which imitates it descends, and where the one descends the other ascends. Rovescio and riverso are synonymous. (2) Inversion—for instance, of intervals and of chords.
Rubato(It.). Lit., "robbed," the player lengthening one note at the expense of another. This term indicates that the passage thus marked demands a freer rhythmical treatment, (v. Tempo rubato.)
Riickung (Ger.). Syncopation.
Ruhepunkt, or Ruhezeichen (Ger.). A pause.
Ruhig (Ger.). Calm, quiet, tranquil.
Rule of the Octave. A formula for the harmonisation of the
ascending and descending scale. Rullante (It.). Rolling. Tamburo rullante, a side-drum. Rustico (It.). Rustic.

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Classical Era Music
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