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-- N --

Nacaire (Fr.). Formerly the name of a kettle-drum, small as well as large.
Naccare, Gnaccare, or Nacchere (It.). (i) Castanets, u)
In the singular : Naccara, &c, a kind of Turkish drum. Nachahmung (Ger.). Imitation. Nach Beheben (Ger.). The same as ad libitum. Nachdruck (Ger.). Emphasis.—Mit Nachdruck, v.ith emphasis. Nachdrücklich (Ger.). With emphasis. Nachlassend (Ger.). Slackening in time. Nachlässig (Ger.). Carelessly, negligently.
Nachschlag (Ger.). Lit., "after-beat." The opposite of the appoggiatura. It consists of one or two short grace notes ex-ecuted after a principal note. Nachschlag is also the name of the two notes added at the end of a shake to round it off; they form together with the last two notes of the shake a turn. {v. Introduction, § XIV., p. 41.)
Nachspiel (Ger.). A postlude.
Nach und nach (Ger.).—By degrees.—Nach und nach schneller,
gradually quicker. Nsenia (Lat.), Nänie (Ger.), v. Nenia (in Appendix). Nagelgeige (Ger.), Nail-flddle. The tones of this instrument
are produced from a series of nails by friction, generally by
means of a bow.
Naif, m., naive, f. (Fr.), Naiv (Ger.). Unaffected, artless,
Naivement (Fr.). Unaffectedly, artlessly, simply. Narrante (It.). In the manner of a narrative.
Nasard, Nasarde, Nassart, Nasat, or Nazad (Fr., Ger.,
&c.). An organ stop which is found of various pitch, sometimes of 4 or 2-feet pitch, more frequently of 1J/3, 2%, 5^, and 10%-feet. The last-mentioned is a pedal stop, and called in German Grossnasat.
Natural. The sign (jj) which revokes a preceding sharp or flat and thus restores trie sharpened or flattened note to its natura* state, (v. Accidentals, and Introduction, j IV., p. 6, &c.)
Naturale (It.). Natural.
Natural harmonic series, v. Harmonics.
Naturalis, Naturale (Lat.). Natural.—Cantus naturalis and hexachordum naturale, a hexachord and music consisting of the notes cdefg a. Thesecond and fifth hexachords were called "natural. (v. Durus, Mollis, and Solmisation.)
Naturalmente (It.). Naturally.


Naturel (Fr.). Natural.—Intervalle naturel, an interval which is unaltered, that is, neither augmented nor diminished. Tan naturel, a key without flats or sharps.
Naturhorn (Ger.). The natural horn, the horn without valves.
Natürliche Intervalle (Ger.). Natural intervals, intervals proper to the key, not such as are altered by sharps or flats. More especially are so named those belonging to the C major scale without any sharps or flats at all.
Naturtöne ( G er.). Natural, or open, notes. The natural harmonic series, the notes which, for instance on the horn {a.v.), can be produced without stopping or any mechanical means.
Naturtrompete (Ger.). A natural trumpet, one without valves.
Neapolitan sixth. The name of a chord of the sixth whose bass note is the subdominant, the fourth degree of a scale. It occurs most frequently in minor, and consists of a bass note, minor third, and minor sixth—for instance, in C minor, f a$ d\f.

Neben (Ger.). This word, which has the meaning of "accessory," occurs in many compounds ; as : Nebengedanke, accessory thought ; Nebenlinien, ledger lines ; Nebennoten, auxiliary notes ; Nebenstimmen, accessory parts.
Neck. Only stringed instruments which are stopped with the fingers have necks. The French call the neck of an instrument manche (handle). It is a more or less slender piece of wood of more or less length which is fixed to the sound-box. The strings—at least those that are stopped—are stretched over the neck, which either serves as a finger-board or for the support of a finger-board. As instruments with necks may be instanced the violin, violoncello, double bass, guitar, lute, and theorbo.
Negligente (It.). Negligent, careless.
Negligentemente (It.). Negligently, carelessly.
Nel, nelT, nello, nella, nei, nelle, neglillt.). In the.
Nel battere (It.). At the downbeat, that is, on the accented
part of the bar. Nettamente (It.). Neatly, clearly. Netto (It. ). Neat, clear.
Neuntes, (i) An early system of notation by means of points, commas, hooks, &c. liy-and-by one, two, and more lines were introduced to remedy the vagueness of the signs, and finally our present notation developed out of it. (2) Melodic phrases at the close of a verse, most frequently found on the last syllable 0/ Alleluia.
Neuvième (Fr.). The interval of a ninth.
Nicht (Ger.). Not.—Nicht zu schnell, not too quick.
Niederschlag (Ger.). Downbeat, the accented part of a !«u.
Niederstrich (Ger.). Downbow.
Nobile (It.). Noble.
Nobilmente (It.). Nobly.
Noch (Ger.). Still, yet.—Noch schneller, still quicker.

Nocturne (Fr.). A night-piece. Compositions of one or more movements bear this title, which now is closely bound up with the dreamy romantic and most frequently slow pieces originated and brought into vogue by Field and Chopin. (». Serenade.)
Nocturna. Portions of the Office of Matins, the first Canonical Hour.
Noël ( Fr. ). A Christmas carol.
Noire (Fr. ). A crotchet note.
Non (It.). Not.—Non treppo, not too much.
Nona (It.). The interval of a ninth.
None. One of the Canonical Hours.
None (Ger.). The interval of a ninth.
Nonet. A composition for nine voices or instruments.
Nonett (Ger. ), Nonetto ( It. ). A nonet.
Nonuplet. A group of notes dividing a bar or part of a bar intc
nine instead of eight or six equal portions. Normal. The C major and A minoi scales are called normal,
because after them all the other major and minor scales are

Normalton (Ger.). The normal tone, the standard of pitch, after
which instruments are to be tuned. Normaltonarten (Ger.). The norm»' keys—C major and A
minor, {v. Normal. ) Normaltonleiter (Ger.). The normal scales—C major and A
minor, (v. Normal.) Nota (Lat. and It.). A note. Nota buona (It.). An accented note.
Nota cambiata (lt.). A changing note (?.».).
Nota caratteristica (It.). The leading note. Nota cattiva (It.). An unaccented note.
Nota contra notam (Lat.). Note against note. {v. Counter point.)
Nota d'abbellimento (It.). A grace note. Nota di passaggio (It.). A passing note.
Nota falsa (It.). A changing note.
Nota principale (It.). An essential note.
Nota romana (Lat.). The same as B«ima. (v. Neumes.)
Nota sensibile (It-)- The leading note.
Nota SOStenuta (It.). A sustained note.
Notation. A description of the modern system of representing sounds by means of written signs, and also a few hints concerning older systems, the reader will find in the Introduction. Further information is given in the articles Neumes and Tablature.
Note (Fr. and Ger.). A note, in general any musical sign.
Note d'agrément (Fr.). A grace note.
Notenschrift (Ger.). Notation.
Note sensible (Fr. ). The leading note.
Notturno (It.). ».Nocturne.

Nourri (Ft.). "Nourished."—Ason nourri is a full or well sustained tone.
Novemole (Ger.). A nonuplet.
NumerUS (Lat. ). Number. Rhythm.
NUOVO, m., nuova, f- (It.). New.—Di nuovo, again.

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See also:
Middle Ages Music
Renaissance Music
Baroque Era Music
Classical Era Music
Romantic Era Music
Nationalist Era Music
Turn of Century Music

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