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-- H --



H (Ger.). The German name of the note B, the name B being
reserved for Bf. Hackbrett (Ger.). A dulcimer. Halb (Ger.). Half.
Halbcadenz (Ger.). Half close, or semi-cadence, (p. Cadence.) Halbe Note (Ger.). A half note—i.e., a minim. Halbe Pause (Ger.). A half rest—i.e., a minim rest. Halber Ton, or Halbton (Ger.). A semitone. Halbprincipal (Ger.). An organ stop of 4-feet pitch.
Half shift, v. Shift.
Hallelujah. The same as Alleluia.
Hals (Ger.). The neck of an instrument such as the violir. and guitar.
Halt (Ger.). A pause. The same as ßwiafc Hammers. A part of the pianoforte action.
Hanakisch (Ger.). A Hanacca. A Moravian dance in \ time, rhythmically somewhat resembling the Polonaise, but quicker.
Handleiter (Ger.). A "hand-guide," a chiroplast. A mecharical contrivance for promoting a good position of the hands and a good touch in pianoforte playing.
Handstücke (Ger.). Technical exercises.
Hardiment (Fr.). Boldly.
Harfe (Ger.). A harp.
HarfenbaSS (Ger.). A bass consisting of broken chords, (v. Alberti
Bass.)
Harmonia (Gk., Lat., and It.). v. Harmony.
Harmonica. (1) The name of various instruments the tones of most of which are produced from glass bells, plates, or bars, by

i48
HARMONICHORD—HARMONICS.

friction (in which case either moistened fingers or some mechanical means is used), or by the impact of a hammer or hammers, held in the hands of the performer or acted upon by means of a keyboard. (2) In Germany, Harmonica, more correctly Handharmonica, or Ziehharmonica, is a name of th; Accordion.
Harmonichord. A keyboard stringed instrument, invented by Fr. Kaufmann, of Dresden, in 1810, the tones of which are produced by the action of a revolving cylinder on the strings, which are brought in contact with it by pressing down the keys.
Harmoilicon. The generic name of instruments the tones of which are produced from a series of pieces of metal, wood, or stone.
Harmonics. (1) The sounds produced by the vibrations of divisions (aliquot parts) of a string, columr of air. &c. Simple sounds are very rare. What we regard AS one sound is in reality a compound of a multiplicity of sounds produced b> a multiplicity of various simultaneous vibrational forms. If, for instance, an impact is given to a string, it vibrates not only in its full length, but at the same time also in divisions. The vibrations of the full length of the string give the fundamental tone, the doubly-quick vibrations of the halves of the string give the octave above the fundamental tone, the trebly-quick vibrations of the string the fifth above the octave, and so on. The several tones which make up the compound sound are called partial tones or partials ; the lowest of them is called fundamental tone, prime, or principal tone; those above the fundamental tone are called the upper-partial tones, upper-partials, overtones, or harmonics. The fundamental tone is generally the loudest of the partial tones, and with it the upper-partials blend so as to be indis-tinguishable, or only in part distinguishable under certain conditions. The number and relative strength of the partial tones varies in the different classes of instruments and voices and in the different individuals of the same class; it is on the number and the relative strength of the partials that the timbre (quality, character of tone) of instruments and voices chiefly depends. In the following illustration, which shows the first six-teen partial tones of the sound C, the figures indicate the sequence of the partials in the series and also the relative number of their vibrations in a given time. As the actual sounds of the 7th, nth, 13th, 14th, and 15th partials can only be approximately represented, they have been distinguished by asterisks, {v. App.)


HARMONIC STOPS—HARP.
'49
(2) Harmonics is also the name given to certain tones pro-duced on the violin, harp, and other stringed instruments, tones which owe another name—flageolet tones—to their peculiar character. By touching a vibrating string very lightly in the middle or at a point a third, fourth, fifth, &c., of its length distant from one of its ends (i.e., from the nut or the bridge) it is made to vibrate in two, three, four, five, &c., divisions, and the result are notes respectively an octave, twelfth, fifteenth, seventeenth, nineteenth, &c, higher than the tone obtained from the open string—i.e., by its full length vibration. Harmonic stops. Organ stops whose pipes, owing to greater pressure of wind, do not produce their fundamental tones, but the first harmonic—i.e., the tone an octave above the funda-mental tone. Such stops are the Flñte octaviante and Flute harmonique.
Harmonie (Ger.). (i) Harmony. (2) Music for wood and brass wind instruments. In this sense one says also Harmoniemusik. (3) A wind band consisting of wood and brass instruments ; the wood and brass instruments of the orchestra collectively.
Harmonielehre (Ger.). (1) The science of harmony. (2) A treatise on harmony.
Harmonieux, m., Harmonieuse, f. (Fr.). Harmonious.
Harmoniplion (Fr.). A keyboard wind instrument, invented in 1837 by Paris of Dijon. The music produced from it resembles a concert of oboes, cors anglais, and jassoons.
Harmonium. A keyboard wind instrument, the tones of which are produced by the vibration of lree reeds, (v. Reeds.) The bellows are worked, except in very large harmoniums, by the performer by means of two pedals (treadles). Small harmoniums have only one set of reeds—i.e., one reed to each note ; larger harmoniums have several sets. These different sets of reeds, varied in tone, are brought into play by drawing out correspond-ing stops. The " expression stop " closes a valve which shuts off the wind-reservoir, and thus the whole management of the wind is given into the hands (literally, to the feet) of the performer, who by the greater or lesser quantity of wind furnished by him can play more or less loud, increase and decrease the tone at pleasure.
Harmonometer (Ger.)., Harmonométre (Fr.). An instru-ment for measuring the relative pitch of sounds.





Harmony. The simultaneous combination of different consonant or dissonant tones which stand to each other in some easily per-ceivable relation. With the ancient Greeks harmony (harmonía) signified a fit combination of successive sounds, (v. Chord ; and Introduction, § VIII., p. 13.)
Harp. One of the most ancient stringed instruments, the tones ol which are produced by plucking the strings (which are of catgut) with the fingers of the right and left hand. The harp has a diatonic scale. On account of the absence of the chromatic

HARPE—HAUT.

tones the performer was of course unable to modulate. To remedy this defect various contrivances have been resorted to. The most perfect instrument hitherto constructed is Erard's "double-action pedal harp," a development of the single-action pedal harp. It has seven pedals by which the strings may be raised either a semitone or a whole tone, and thus all the keys become practicable. This double-action harp has a compass of more than six and a half octaves—from C,? toand, as each string can be raised two semitones, even to /""4. The seven pedals act respectively throughout all the octaves, each on one of the seven degrees of the C flat major scale, this being the key in which the harp is tuned. The single-action harp was in the key of E flat, and its compass extended from F, to J"".
Harpe(Fr.). A harp.
Harpicordo (It.). A harpsichord.
Harpsichord. A keyboard instrument, one of the predecessors of the pianoforte. The strings, instead of being struck by tangents, as in the clavichord, or by hammers, as in the pianoforte, were plucked by quills or pieces of hard leather, (v. Jack.) The spinet and virginal are varieties of the harpsichord, differing from it in size and form. The form of the harpsichord is indicated by the German name of the instrument—Fliigtl, wing. The harpsi-chord had often more trun one keyboard, and also was provided with stops by which the lone could be modified.
Hart (Ger.). Hard. This word is also used in the sense of "major."
Haupt (Ger.). Chief, principal.
Hauptgesang, and Hauptmelodie (Ger.). The principal
melody.
Hauptmanual (Ger.). The principal manual, the keyboard of the great organ.
Hauptnote (Ger.). (i) An essential note. (2) An accented note. (3) A principal note.
Hauptpartie (Ger.). A principal part.
Hauptprobe (Ger.). The principal rehearsal.
Hauptsatz (Ger.). (1) The principal part, or division, of a com-position. (2) The first subject of a double fugue.
Hauptschluss (Ger.). A full close.
Hauptstimme (Ger.). The principal part.
Hauptthema (Ger.). The principal theme; the first subject of a double fugue.
Hauptton (Ger.). (1) The key-note. (2) Sometimes also the fundamental tone.
Haupttonart (Ger.). The principal, the prevalent key of a com-position.
Hauptwerk (Ger.). The great organ. Hausse (Fr.). The nut of a bow Haut (Fr.). High, acute.
HAUTBOIS—HIDDEN FIFTHS.
151

Hautbois (Fr.). An oboe.
Hautbois d'amour (Fr.). v. Oboe d'amore.
Hautboy, v. Oboe.
Haut-deSSUS (Fr.). A high soprano.
Haute-contre (Fr.). (1) A high tenor voice or the possessor of such a voice. (2) Also the alto or contralto voice. (3) A member of the viol family.
Haute-taille (Fr.). A high tenor.
H dur (Ger. ). B major.
Head-voice. The high register of the human voice. The name does not indicate the place of its production, but the accompany-ing sensation, (v. Voice ; and Chest-voice. )
Heftig1 (Ger. ). Vehement, impetuous.
Heimlich (Ger.). Secret, furtive, stealthy.
Heiter (Ger.). Serene, cheerful, merry.
Hemidiapeilte (Gk.). An imperfect fifth.
Hemiditone. A minor third.
Hemiolia (Lat.). The proportion of three to two. Hemitone. A semitone.
Heptachord. (1) The interval of a seventh. (2) A diatonic series
of seven notes. (3) An instrument with seven strings. Herabstrich (Ger.). The same as Herunterstrich (q.v.). Heroisch (Ger. ). Heroic.
Herstrich (Ger.). A "hither-stroke," the drawing of the bow in the direction from the nut to the point. This term is used in connection with the violoncello, double bass, and instruments held like them. It corresponds with the downbow of the
violinists.





Herunterstrich (Ger.). A downbow in playing the violin and
instruments held like it. Hes (Ger.). B flat. Sometimes used instead of B. Hexachord. A diatonic series of six notes—for instance, G A B Cde.
(v. Solmisation. )
Hidden Fifths and Hidden Octaves. In the article "Con-sécutives " it has been stated that progressions of perfect fifths and octaves are prohibited. Hidden fifths and octaves—which occur when the second of two intervals formed by two parts progressing in similar motion is a perfect fifth or octave—are likewise prohibited, but not so strictly. Many of these pro-gressions are indeed quite harmless. They are, barring some exceptions, least objectionable when the upper of the two parts proceeds a degree upward or downward, and the lower takes a leap of a third, fourth, or fifth. The more or less of their innocuousness depends upon the closeness of the harmonic con-nection and the progression of the other parts. Much, moreover, is permissible in the middle parts which would incur censure in the extreme parts. These progressions are prohibited and called hidden because the ear fills up, as it were, the gap or gaps

152
HINAUFSTRICH—HORN.

between the actual sounds and hears fifths or octaves which otherwise are not obvious. For instance, if the actual sounds are as at (a), the ear hears as at (6).
I«)
-1 t ~FT\ 1 J CI r-* « i
4 ' a ° <s> rj 1 ° —^ * ol

h" -<s> »-=H






Hinaufstrich (Ger.). An upbow in playing the violin and instrr-merits held like it.
Hinstrich (Ger.). A " thither-stroke," the drawing of the bow il the direction from the point the nut. This term is used in con-nection with the violoncello, double bass, and instruments held like them. It corresponds with the upbow of the violinists.
His (Ger.). B sharp.
Hisis (Ger.). B double sharp.
H moll (Ger.). B minor.
Hoboe (Ger.). An oboe.
Hoch (Ger.). High, acute.
Hochamt (Ger.). High mass.
Hochzeitsmarsch (Ger.). A wedding march.
Höhe (Ger.). Height, elevation, acuteness.
Hohlflöte (Ger.). "Hollow flute." A Eute-stop in the organ,
which is to be found from i6-feet to i-foot pitch. Hold. A pause. This term is obsolete.
Holding note. A note sustained by one part whilst othei parts are moving.
Holzbläser (Ger.). A player, or players, on wood wind instru-ments.
Holzblasinstrument (Ger.). A wood wind instrument.
Homophony (Gk.). (i) Music in unison in contradistinction to music in harmony. (2) Music consisting of an accompanied principal part in contradistinction to contrapuntal music in which all the parts are of equal importance, (v. Polyphony; and Counter-point.)
Horee canonicse (Lat.). The canonical hours (q.v.).
Horn. A brass wind instrument consisting of a long twisted tube terminating in a wide, outspreading bell. There are two kinds of horns : the natural horn and the valve-horn. The following
HORNMUSIK—HURDY-GURDY.

natural harmonic series can be obtained by the modification of the position of the lips and the force of air blown into the tube :


ol[7i# 1
The first of these notes is, however, not practicable, and the notes marked as crotchets are not in tune. By inserting the hand more or less far into the bell the natural (or open) notes may be more or less flattened, and thus all the other notes obtained, at least from Fj, below the first G, upward. But these stopped (or closed) notes are not so clear as the natural ones, especially those more than a semitone below the latter. The length of the tube and consequently the key of the in-strument can be altered by crooks (q.v.). The notation for the horn is always in the key of C. Only the horn in C alto, however, sounds the notes as they are written ; whereas the one in basso sounds them a major ninth lower, the one in C an octave lower, the one in D a minor seventh lower, the one in E^ a major sixth lower, the one in E a minor sixth lower, the one in F a perfect fifth lower, the one in G a perfect fourth lower, the one in A a minor third lower, the one in B|? alto a major second lower, &c. On the valve-horn can be produced all the semitones, from the Fj below the second C upward, as open notes. For the horn with three valves comprises in fact seven natural horns. (v. Valves.) Music for the horn is noted in the G clef, with the exception, however, of the lowest notes, which are written in the F clef, and an octave lower than the rest.
Hornmusik (Ger.). Music for brass instruments.
Hornpipe, (i) An old wind instrument, a kind of shawm. (2) A spirited dance of English origin ; in its older form in -j, in its modern form in Q time.
Hosanna (Lat.). A part of the Sanctus.
Huit pieds (Fr.). An organ in which those of 8-feet pitch are the
largest pipes. Hlilfsnote (Ger.). An auxiliary note.
Hummel, or Hummelchen (Ger.). (1) A drone. (2) An
obsolete organ stop with two drone pipes—either C, F ; or C, G. Humor (Ger.). Humour.—Mit Humor, humorously. Humoreske (Ger.). A humorous piece.
Hurdy-gurdy. The vielle of the French and the Leyer, 01 Bauernleyer, of the Germans. This very ancient instrument consists of a body similar to that of the violin, a box-like neck with from ten to twelve keys, four catgut strings, and a wooden wheel, rubbed with -osin, which is turned with a handle. The

¡54
HURTIG—HYPO DORIAN.
keys act on two of the strings, the two others serve as » drone.
Hurtig (Ger.). Quick, brisk, nimble.
Hydraulic organ. An organ in which the pressure of the ail
was regulated by water. Hymn. An ode, a song of praise. Now especially applied as the
name of religious songs. Hymnaire (Fr.). A hymn-book. Hymnos (Gk.), Hymnus (Lat.). A hymn.
Hyper (Gk.). Over, above.—Applied to the names of intervals this word signifies "super," or "upper;" applied to the names of the Greek transposition scales and ecclesiastical octave species it signifies "a fourth higher ;" applied to the Greek octave species it signifies "a fifth higher," or, what (with regard to the names of the notes and the succession of the intervals) comes to the same thing, "a fourth lower."
Hyperaeolian. (i) In the ancient Greek system, the name of one of the transposition scales. (2) In the mediaeval ecclesiastical
system, the octave species b c d e fg a b, the eleventh (sixth
Authentic) mode. (v. Church modes.) Hyperdorian. In the ancient Greek system, the name of the
octave species b c d e f g a b, also called Mixolydian, and of one
of the transposition scales. Hyperlydian. In the ancient Greek system, the name of the
octave species g a b c d e fg, and of one of the transposition
scales.
Hyperphrygian. (i) In the ancient Greek system, the name of the octave species a ITc d e fg a, also called Locrian, and of one of the transposition scales. (2) In the mediaeval ecclesiastical system, the name of the octave species fgabcdef, the twelfth (sixth plagal) mode. (v. Church modes.)
Hypo (Gk.). Under.—Applied to intervals this word signifies "sub," or "lower;" applied to the names of the Greek trans-position scales and ecclesiastical octave species it signifies "a fourth below ;" applied to the names of the Greek octave species it signifies "a fifth below," or, what (with regard to the names of the notes and the succession of the intervals) comes to the same thing, "a fourth above."
Hyposeolian. (1) In the ancient Greek system, the name of one of the transposition scales. (2) In the mediaeval ecclesiastical system, the name of the octave species e fg a b c d7, the tenth (fifth plagal) mode.
Hypodiapente (Gk.). The " lower fifth," the subdominant.
Hypodorian. (1) In the^ ancient Greek system, the name of the octave species a b c d e f g a, also called /Eolian, and of one of
HYPOIASTIAN—IMBROGLIO.

the transposition scales. (2) In the mediaeval ecclesiastical system, the octave species a b c J~efg~a, the second (first plagal) mode.
Hjpoiastian, or Hypoionian. (I) In the ancient Greek system, the name of one of the transposition scales. (2) In the mediaeval ecclesiastical system, the name of the octave species gabcdejg, the fourteenth (seventh plagal) mode. (v. Church modes.)
Hypolydian. (1) In the ancient Greek system, the name of the octave species f g a b c d e /, also called Syntonolydian, and of one of the transposition scales. (2) In the mediaeval ecclesiastical system, the name of the octave species c d e Jga b c, the sixth (third plagal) mode.
Hypomixolydian. In the mediaeval ecclesiastical system, the name of the octave species defgabcd, the eighth (fourth plagal) mode.
Hypophrygian. (I) In the ancient Greek system, the name of the octave species g a b c d e f g, also called Ionian, and of one of the transposition scales. (2) In the mediaeval ecclesiastical system, the name of the octave species h c d^ejg a b, the fourth (second plagal) mode.
Hypoproslambanomenos (Gk.). The note below the Pros-lambanomenos—namely, G.


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