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-- F --



F. The name of the fourth degree of the normal major scale. Fa. (1) The fourth of the Aretinian syllables. (2) The name of the note F in Italy, France, and some other countries.
Fa bémol (Fr.), Fa bemolle (It.). F flat.
Fabliau (Fr. ). A tale in verse, a kind of poetical composition much
in vogue in the early ages of French poetry. Faburden. v. Falso bordone.
Faces d'un accord (Fr.). Positions of a chord. A chord has as
many " aspects " as it has tones. Facile (Fr. and It.). Easy ; fluent, facile. Facilement (Fr.), Facilmente (It.). Easily, fluent y. Facilita (It-), Facilité (Fr.). Easiness ; facility, fluency. Fackeltanz (Ger.). A dance with torches, a kind of Polonaise. Facture (Fr.). (1) The make, construction, of a musical com
position. (2) The scale of organ pipes, (v. Scale.) Fa dièse (Fr.). F sharp.—Fa dièse majeur, F sharp major ; Fa u'iitt
mineur, F sharp minor. Fa diesis (It.). F sharp.—Fa diesis maggiore, F sharp major ; Fa
diesis minore, F sharp minor. Fa feint (Fr.), Fa Actum (Lat.). Lit., "feigned Fa." Notes
lowered a semitone by a flat were called thus in the old theory of
music. If, for instance, you flatten the note B, this B flat will, as
regards pitch, be in the same relation to A as F (Fa) to E (Mit
FAGOTT—FALSO BORDONE.
i »9

Fagott (Ger.). The bassoon.
Fagottino (It.). An obsolete member of the bassoon family a fifth higher in pitch than the ordinary bassoon. It was also called Tenorfagott and Quintfagott.
Fagottista (It.). A bassoon player.
Fagotto (It.). The bassoon.
Fagottone (It.). The double bassoon.
FagottZUg (Ger.). "Bassoon stop." (I) An organ reed-stop. (2) A harpsichord stop.
Faible (Fr.). Weak, faint, light. — Temps faible, unaccented part of a bar.
Fa la. The burden and name of songs that came into favour in the
latter part of the sixteenth century, (v. Ballet.) Fall (Ger.). A cadence.
Falsa (Lat. and It.). False.—Quinta falsa, diminished fifth ; musica
falsa, the same as musica ficta. (v. Ficta.) Falsch. (Ger.). False, wrong.—Falsche Quintc, diminished fifth. False Cadence. The same as interrupted, or deceptive, cadence.
(v. Cadence.)
False fifth. Some theorists have called the diminished fifth a false
fifth.
Faloe relation. The principal and most objectionable kind of false relation arises where a note which has appeared in one part re-appears immediately after in another part chromatically altered —i.e., a semitone flattened or sharpened (a). As numerous ex-amples in our best composers show, such progressions have by no means always a bad effect. Another kind of false relation is the occurrence of the trilonus (an augmented fourth or diminished fifth) between the first note of the one and the second note of the other of two progressive parts. Ilence the strict prohibition by 'he old theorists of the progression of two major thirds {/>). The practice and teaching of more modern times deals with thii matter in a high-handed way.
(«) , (*)

I
Falsetto (It.), (i) The head-voice as distinguished from the chest voice. (2) A singer who sings soprano or alto parts with such a voice. Falsetti must not be confounded with castrati.
Falso(It.). False.
Falso bordone (It.). What the French call Faux-bourdon and the English Faburden. There are several kinds of Falso bordone. The most important are : (i) The early manner of accompanying a melody {cantus firmus) in thirds and sixths, with the exception of the first and the last note, with which the highest part took

FA MI—FEIERLICH.

the octave and the middle pari generally the fifth of the tenor — i.e., the part which "holds " the cantusfirmus. Or the melody (can/us firmus) was in the highest part, and was accompanied by fourths and sixths below, except at the close, where the lowest part took the octave. (2) Rhythmically unmeasured vocal com-positions in simple counterpoint, consisting of progressions oí consonant chords, whose even course, however, is interrupted at the cadences by prepared suspensions.
Fa mi. In the old solmisation the name of the semitone progression —in the first place of F—E, then of B¡>—A, E[?—D, &c.
Fandango (Sp.). A Spanish national dance in ternary time (-J, f, and also in f time). Like the Seguidillas and Bolero, it it danced with the accompaniment of castanets.
Fanfare (Fr.). A nourish, call, or short tune, sounded by trumpets, bugles, or hunting horns.
Fantaisie (Fr.), Fantasie (Ger.), Fantasia (It.). Fantasy, fancy, caprice, whim. (1) The name of fantasia is given to various kinds of composition—to preludes consisting of a few arpeggios and runs, to lengthy works full of thought and learning, to pot-pourris of operatic tunes, &c.—which, however, all agree in being free in style, not restricted by any definite form. (2) An improvisation, (c. Fancies in Appendix.)
Fantasiren (Ger.). To improvise.
Fantásticamente (It.). Fantastically.
Fantástico (It.), Fantastique (Fr.), Fantastisch (Ger.). Fantastic, capricious, whimsical, following the vagaries of imagination.
Farandola, Farandole, or Farandoule (Fr.). A Provencal
dance in f time. Farsa (It.). A farce.
Fascie (It.). The sides of a violin, violoncello, guitar, or similarly
constructed instrument. Fastosamente (It.). Pompously, in a stately manner. Fastoso (It.). Pompous, stately.
Fattura (It.). The make, construction, of a musical composition.
FaUSSe(Fr.). v. Faux.
Fausse quinte (Fr.). A diminished fifth.
Fausse relation (Fr.). False relation.
Fausset (Fr.). Voix de fausset, head-voice, falsetto.
Faux, m., fausse, f. (Fr.). False ; out of tune.
Faux-bourdon (Fr.). Faburden. (v. Falso bordone.)
F clef. Now this clef, which indicates the note f, is only used on the fourth line, and called " bass clef." (v. Introduction, ) III., pp. 4—6.) Formerly it was also used on the third line (bary tone clef) and on the fifth line (contrabass clef).
Fdur(Ger.). F major.
Federclavier (Ger.). A spinet.
Feierlich (Ger.). Festive, solemn.
FEIN—FIFTEENTH.
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Fein (Ger.). Fine, delicate.
Feint, Feinte (Fr.). Feigned. (». Fictum, Ficta.)
Feldflöte, Feldpfeife, or Feldpipe (Ger.), v. Bauernflöte.
Feldstücke (Ger. ). Trumpet signals of the cavalry.
Fermamente (lt.). Firmly.
Fermata (It.), Fermate (Ger.). A pause : f?\
Fermo (It.). Firm.
Ferne (Ger.). Distance.— Wie aus der Ferne, as if from a distance. Feroce (It.). Fierce, violent.
Ferocità (It.). Fierceness, violence.—Con ferocità, fiercely. Fertig (Ger.). Ready, prompt, finished ; skilful, dexterous. Fertigkeit (Ger. ). Skill, dexterity, technical accomplishment. Fervente (It.). Fervent, ardent, passionate. Feses (Ger.). F double flat.
Fest (Ger.). A festival.—Musikfest, a music festival. Festa (It.). A festival. Festivamente (It.). In a festive manner. Festività (It.). Festivity, festival, mirth. Festivo (It.). "I Festlich (Ger.). \ Festive. Festoso (It.). J
Feuer (Ger.). Fire, ardour, spirit, passion. Feuerig, or Feurig (Ger.). Fiery, ardent, passionate. Fiacco (It.). Tired, weak, languishing. Fiasco (It.). Failure.
Fiato (It.). Breath, respiration.—Stromentidafiato, wind instruments. Ficta (Lat.). Feigned.—Musica ficta, feigned music, was the name
formerly given to music in a transposed key, which of course
required accidentals. Fictum (Lat.). Feigned. (». Fa fictum.) Fiddle. A violin.
Fides (Lat ). (l) A catgut string. (2) A stringed instrument. Fidicen (Lat.). A lyre, harp, or lute player; indeed, a player on
any stringed instrument. Fidicina (Lat.). A female player on a stringed instrument. Fidicula (Lat.). A small stringed instrument. Fiducia (It.). Confidence, assurance. Fiedel (Ger.). A fiddle. Fior, fière (Fr.). Proud, haughty. Fieramente ( It. ). Ferociously ; haughtily, proudly. Fiero (It.). Ferocious ; haughty, proud.
Fife. A simple cross-flute (v. Flute), generally either in the key of F or B flat, and chiefly used in military music in combination with the side-drum, in what are called Drum and Fife Bands.
Fifre(Fr.). A fife.
Fifteenth. (1) The interval of a fifteenth, also called a double octave. (2) An organ stop of 2-feet pitch, which sounds the notes two octaves higher than they are written.





Fignr (Ger. ). A figure, a group of notes.
Figural-Gesang, ot Figural-Musik (Ger.). r. Cantui
figuralis.
Figura muta (Lat. and It.). A rest.
Figuration. Rhythmical and melodical solution, diminution,
ornamentation, of simple elements. Figurirt (Ger.). o)
Figurato (It.), y Figurate, or figurative Figuré (Fr.). J
Figured bass. A short-hand system of noting harmonies. It consists of a bass part with figures which indicate the principal intervals of the intended chords. In the case of triads, unless they are inverted, the bass is generally left without figures. Accidentals affect the corresponding intervals of the figures beside which they stand. An accidental standing by itself affects the third above the bass note. A stroke through a figure shows that the interval is sharpened a semitone. An oblique stroke under or above a bass note indicates that not the note thus marked, but the following one is the basis of the harmony to be taken ; horizontal lines indicate that a harmony has to be con-tinued whilst the bass proceeds ; and the words tasto solo or the sign o indicate that nothing but the bass notes is to be played. (v. Introduction, § VII., pp. 15 and 16, and § XV., p. 57.)
Filar la VOCe, and filar il SUOno (It.). To sustain a sound and (generally, though not necessarily) gradually increase and decrease its loudness, either in singing or in playing on an instrument.
Filer la voix (Fr.). v. Filar la voce.
Fin(Fr.). The end.
Fin (It.), v. Fino.
Final. The final is in the Church modes what the tonic is in our modern musical system. In the authentic modes the final is on the first degree, in the plagal modes on the fourth degree of the scale. Besides these regular finals {i.e., "concluding notes") there are also irregular ones (confinais), which occur frequently in the endings of the Psalms and in the sections of the Responsories, Graduais, and Tracts.
Finale (It.). (1) The concluding movement of a sonata, symphony, &c, and the concluding divisions of the acts of an opera. This latter kind of finale is a culminating ensemble piece, many-membered ir» movement and matter and generally with chorus. (2) A final {a.v.).
Finalis (Lat. ) The name of one of the Accentus ecclesiastici.
Fine (It.). The end.
Fingerleiter (Ger. ). The same as Chiroplast. Fingersatz (Ger. ). Fingering. Finito(It.). Finished. Pino (It.). Till, as far as.
Finto, Finta (It.). Feigned.—Cadenza finla, a deceptive cadence '. Fa finto, the same as Fa feint {a.v.).
FIOCHETTO—FLAUTO TRAVERSO. 133

Fiochetto (It.)' Somewhat hoarse, faint, dim. Fiochezza (It.). Hoarseness. FiocoHt.). Hoarse, faint, dim.
Fioreggiare (It.). To ornament with diminutions, passages. Fioretto (It.). Grace notes, any kind of melodic ornament. Fiorito (It.). Ornamented, florid.
Fioritura (It.). Lit., "a flowering." A florid melodic ornament. Fioreggiare, the corresponding verb, signifies to ornament (flower) a melody by solving its principal elements into a multi plicity of shorter notes of varied pitch. Fioriturc is the plural of fioritura.
Fis(Ger.). F sharp.
Fis dur (Ger.). F sharp major.
Fisis (Ger.). i double sharp.
Fis moll (Ger.). F sharp minor.
Fistel (Ger.). The head-voice, falsetto.
Fistula (Lat.). A pipe.
Fistuliren (Ger.). (1) To sing or speak with the head-voice. (2) In speaking of organ pipes, to overblow—i.e., to sound one of the upper partial notes instead of the fundamental note.
Flageolet. A small flute a bee—that is, a straight flute, with a plug in the mouthpiece which leaves only a narrow slit for the breath to pass through. (2) An organ stop. (3) Flageolet tones are those ethereal sounds produced on stringed instruments (violin, harp, &c.) by lightly touching a string in certain places with a finger, and then setting it in vibration by drawing the bow over it or plucking it. (v. Harmonics.)
Flaschinet (Ger.). A corruption of Flageolet.
Flat. The character ()?) by which the normal pitch of a note is lowered asemitone. (v. Introduction, $ IV., pp. 6—II; and Accidentals.)
Flatter la COrde (Fr.). Lit., "to caress the string." To plaj with a tender, sweet expression on a bow stringed instrument.
Flautando, or Flautato (It.). Flute-like. An expression some-times found in music for stringed instruments played with a bow, in which case the latter has to be kept farther away from the bridge than usual and drawn lightly over the strings.
Flautino (It.). A small flute.
Flautista (It.). A flute-player.
Flauto (It.). A flute.
Flauto a becco (It.). The same as flute d bee (q.v.).
Flauto aniabile (It.). A sw«. toned organ stop, most frequently
of 4-feet pitch.
Flauto dolce (It.). (I) The same as flute a bee (q.v.). (2) Also
the name of a sweet-toned organ stop. Flauto piccolo (It.). A " smal: flute," an octave flute—i.e., a flute
an octave higher in pitch than the ordinary flute. Its compass
extends from d" to a'" (notation : a"—a'"). Flauto traverso (It.). "Cross-flute." The German flute. (v.
Flute iraversiere and Flute.)

134 FLAUTONE—FLOTE HARMONIQUE.

Plautone (It.). A large flute, a bass flute. FlebÛe (It.). Doleful, mournful. Plessibile (It.). Flexible, pliant.
F Libeller (Ger.). The f or sound-holes of instruments of the violin class.
F16te(Ger.). A flute. Flbtenbass (Ger.). A bass flute.
FlÙcb.tig'(Ger.). Fugitive. Light,nimbly. Hasty,superficial,careless.
Flue-pipes. Those organ pipes (metal as well as wooden) which are made to sound by forcing the wind through a slit (the wind-way) at the top of the foot, and against a sharp edge (the upper-lip), which divides the wind, part of which only enters the body of the pipe. A flue-wore is the aggregate of such pipes.
Fliigel (Ger.). Lit., "wing." A grand pianoforte. Formerly, a harpsichord.
Flùgelbom (Ger.). (I) A bugle. (2) A keyed brass instrument which is made in various keys and forms. The Kenthorn, Klappenhorn, and Cjrnet belong to the genus Fliigelhorn.
Flute. There are two kinds of flute : the flûte à bec (beak-flute), or direct flute, and the flûte traversiire, or cross-flute ; the former has a plugged mouthpiece at one end of the tube, the latter is blown through a lateral hole. Excepting the flageolet, the flûte à bec has entirely disappeared, at least among the art-producing European nations. The instrument understood when we now speak of the flute is the cross-flute, also called German flute. It is generally made of wood, sometimes of metal, and consists of a conical tube, stopped at its wider end, and provided with six finger-holes and a number of keys. As improved by Bbhm, it has a compass from d to c"". Music for this instrument, which is one of the most important members of the orchestra, is written as it sounds. A small, or octave, flute, the flaulo piccolo (with a compass from d" to a"" ; written d'—a'"), is also sometimes used in the orchestra. In military bands flutes in E flat and in F, and small flutes an octave higher, are to be met with. Now flutes are also made cylindrical and of ebonite.
Flûte (Fr.). The same asflautando andflautato (q.v.).
Flûte à bee (Fr.). "Beak-flute." A direct flute. It has a beak-shaped mouthpiece with a plug which leaves only a narrow aperture for the breath to pass through. There was a whole family of flûtes à bec : bass, tenor, alto, &c. (v. Flute.)
Flûte à Pavillon (Fr.). An organ stop of 8-feet pitch.
Flûte d'amour (Fr.). (1) A flute in the key of B flat. (2) A soft toned organ stop.
Flûte d'Angleterre (Fr.). The same as flûte à bec (q.v.).
Flûte douce (Fr.). The same as flaulo dolce (q.v.).
Flûte harmonique (Fr.). An organ stop of 4-feet fitch, (e. Harmonic stops.)
FLÚTE OCTAVIANTE—FORZAR LA VOCE. 135

Flñte octaviante (Fr.). An organ stop of 4-feet pitch, {v. Har monic stops.)
Flüte traversiére (Fr.). "Cross-flute." The German flute, the common flute which is blown through a hole in the side of its tube. (v. Flute.)
F moll (Ger.). F minor.





FOCO (It.). The same asfuoco (q.v.).
FoCOSameilte (It.). Fiery, passionately.
FOCOSO (It.). Fiery, passionate.
Foglietto (It.). A name given to a first violin part which contains all the obbligato passages of the other parts. A foglietto is used by the player who assists at the rehearsals of ballets, sometimes by conductors instead of a score, and also by the leader of the orchestra.
Fois (Fr.). Time.—Premierefois, first time ; secondefois, second time.
Folias(Sp.), Foliesd'Bspagnes(Fr.), Follia(lt.). ASpanisb
dance in £ time.
Fondamental (Fr.), Fondamentale (It.). Fundamental.
Fondamento (It.). Fundament; fundamental part.
Fonds d'orgflie (Fr.). The aggregate of the foundation stops of
the organ—namely, the open and stopped flue stops of 32, 16, 8,
and 4 feet.
Forlana (It.), Forlane (Fr.). A gay, lively dance, generally in f, sometimes in ^ time, which originated in Friuli, and has its home in the north-east of Italy.
Form. The exposition and grouping of musical thoughts; the con-catenation and balancing of parts of a composition. Symmetry is an important, but neither the sole nor perhaps the chief, element of form. Indeed strict symmetry produces monotony. Matter, moreover, has to be weighed as well as measured. But form of some kind is indispensable, for without it no work can be intelligible. And if the composition is to be a work of art, its form must be not only clear but also beautiful. This beauty, however, is a secret, the knowledge of which none but heaven-born artists possess. With regard to the mechanism of form con-sult: Introduction, pp. 27—38; Sonata; Rondo; Song-form; &c.
Fort (Fr.). Strong.—Temps fort, accented part of a bar.
Forte (It.). Loud, strong.
Fortemente (It.). Loudly, strongly.
Fortepiano (It.). (1) The art of shading—i.e., of increasing and decreasing the sound. (2) The pianoforte. (3) The commencing of a note loud and becoming soft immediately after.
Fortissimo (It.). Very loud.
Fortschreitung (Ger.). Progression.
Forza (It.). Force, vigour.—Conforia, with vigour.
Forzando (It.). Lit., "forcing." Forzato (It.). Lit., "forced."
These expressions indicate that a stress has to be laid on a note. Forzar la voce (It.). To force the voice.

136 FOURNITURE—FUGA CONTRARIA.

Fourniture (Fr.). A mixture stop in the organ.
Fourth. The name of a musical interval, (v. Introduction, pp. 12, 13. )
Française (Fr.). (1) A lively dance in f- time. (2) Instead of Contredanse française, the former word being understood.
Franchezza (It.). Frankness, boldness, freedom.
Frappé (Fr.). "Struck." Taken substantively this term signifie» the accented part of a bar. Its opposite is levé.
Frase (It.). Phrase.—Frasi, phrases.
Fraseggiare (It.). To phrase, to render a musical period properly.
Freddamente (It.). Coldly. Freddo (It.). Cold.
Fredon (Fr.). An almost obsolete word oignifying : (1) a rapid run, in most cases diatonic and on the same syllable ; (2) a quavering of the voice in singing.
Fredonnement (Fr.). Humming.
Fredonner (Fr.). To hum, to sing in an undertone.
Free reed. v. Reed. French horn. v. Horn.
French sixth. The chord of the French sixth consists of a bass note, its major third, augmented fourth, and augmented sixth —for instance : «b t d
French violin clef. The G clef on the first line. (». G clef. )
Frets. Thin strips of wood, metal, or ivory, inserted transversely in, and slightly projecting from, the finger-board of various stringed instruments—the old viols, lutes, theorbos, and the still flourishing guitar—in order to facilitate correct stopping. Catgut frets, too, are found on old instruments. Strings bound round the necks of instruments were indeed the earliest frets.
Fretta (It.). Haste, celerity.—Confretta, with haste.
Frisch (Ger. ). Brisk, lively, vigorous.
Fröhlich (Ger.). Joyous, gladsome, gay.
Frosch (Ger.). The nut of a bow.
F Schlüssel (Ger. ). F clef.
Frottola (It. ). A ballad, a song. Frottole is the plural offrottolai. Fuga (Lat. and It.). A fugue.
Fuga ad OCtavam (Lat.). A fugue at the octave.
Fuga ad quintam (Lat.). A fugue at the fifth.
Fuga sequahs motus (Lat. ). "A fugue of similar motion "—i.e., a fugue in which the answer ascends and descends in the same way as the subject. It is synonymous with fuga recta.
Fuga al Contrario, or a! rivtrso, or al rovescio (It.). v. Fuga contraria.
Fuga authentica (Lat. ). A fugue with an ascending subject.
Fuga canonica ( Lat. ). A canon.
Fuga COmposita (Lat.). A fugue the subject of which proceeds
by degrees, not by leaps. Fuga contraria (Lat.). A fugue in which the answer imitates the
subject at once by contrary motion.
FUGA DEL TUONO—FUGA RICERCATA.
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Fuga del tuono (It.)- A tonal fugue, {v. Fugue.) Fuga doppia (Lat.). A double fugue, a fugue with two subjects. Fuga homophona (Lat.). A fugue with the answer at the unison. Fuga impropria (Lat.). The same as fuga irregularis (q.v.). Fuga infequalis (Lat.). The same as fuga contraria (q.v.). Fuga incomposita (Lat.). A fugue the subject of which proceeds by leaps, not by degrees.
Fuga in consequenza (It.). A canon.
Fuga in contrario tempore (Lat.). A fugue in which the accentuation of the answer differs from that of the subject, the accented notes of the one being unaccented in the other, and vice versd.
Fuga inversa (Lat.). A liigue throughout in double counter-point and contrary motion.
Fuga irregularis (Lat.). An irregular fugue, a fugue which lacks one or more of the features that characterise the form.
Fuga libera (Lat.). A fugue with free episodes.
Fuga ligata (Lat. and It.). A fugue without free episodes, entirely developed out of the subject and the countersubject.
Fuga mixta (Lat ). A fugue in which several kinds of answer occur—by augmentation, by diminution, by contrary motion, &c
Fuga obligata (Lat. and It.). The same as fuga ligala (q.v.).
Fuga partialis, or fuga periodica (Lat.). A fugue with
partial, or periodic, imitation, in contradistinction to a fugue with canonic or uninterrupted (perpetual) imitation ; in short, what we call a fugue, in contradistinction to a canon. Fuga per arsin et thesin (Lat.). The same as fuga in contrario tempo, the accents of the subject being reversed in the answer.*
Fuga per augmentationein (Lat.). A fugue in which the
answer is by augmentation Fuga per diminutionem (Lat.). A fugue in which the answer is by diminution.
Fuga per motum contrarium (Lat.). A frgue in which the
answer is by contrary motion.
Fuga perpetua (Lat.). A canon.
Fuga plagalis (Lat.). A fugue with a descending subject. Fuga propria (Lat.). The same as fuga regularis (q.v.). Fuga reale (It.). A real fugue, (v. Fugue.) Fuga recta (Lat.). The same as fuga aqualis motus (q.v.). Fuga reditta (It.). A fugue in the middle or at the end of which
two or more parts are treated canonically. Fuga regularis (Lat.). A regular fugue, a fugue which has all
the features that characterise the form. Fuga retrograda (Lat.). A fugle in which the answer is by
retrograde motion.
Fuga retrograda per motum contrarium (Lat.). A fugue
in which the answer is both by retrograde and contrary motion. Fuga ricercata (It.). An elaborate fugue ; one in which the rarer devices of contrapuntal craftsmanship are employed, such u

«3»
FUGA SCIOLTA—FUGUE.

canonic imitation, and imitation by augmentation, diminution,
and by contrary and retrograde motion. Fuga sciolta (It.). The same asfuga libera (g.v.). Fuga soluta (Lat.). The same as fuga libera (q.v.). Fuga totalis (Lat.). A canon.
Fugato(It.). An irregular fugue. An independent composition, or a movement or part of a movement of a larger work in the fugal style. Fuge (Ger.). A fugue.
Fughetta (It.), Fughette (Ger.). A short fugue. This term is also used in the sense offugato.
Fugue. This word is derived from the Latin fuga, flight, and a certain kind of musical composition has been called thus because: "One part, as it were, tries to flee and escape from the others ; but is pursued by them, until they afterwards meet in an amicable way, and finally come to a satisfactory under-standing." The technical description must necessarily be less simple than this poetical one.
There are fugues for instruments, for voices, and for instru-ments and voices combined. A fugue may be in two, three, four, five, and more parts. The word fugue had not always the same meaning as in our time and since the days of J. S. Bach and Handel, the masters of masters ; but it always signified an imita-tive form—a canon or something more or less like what we call a fugue. Various kinds of fugues are enumerated under Fuga with its accompanying epithets. A fugue, in its final evolu-tion, consists of an exposition and two or more developments, which generally are connected by episodes. In a fugue in four parts the exposition is somewhat like this. One part pro-poses the subject; a second part follows with the answer (i.e., the imitation of the subject at the fifth above or fourth below); a third part resumes the subject an octave higher or lower than the part which commenced ; and a fourth part brings up the rear with the answer an octave higher or lower than the part which was second in the order of succession. The counterpoint with which the part that first enunciates the subject accompanies the answer is called countersubject; but it is pro-perly so called only when it recurs as an accompaniment with the subsequent enunciations of the subject and answer. Some-times the subject and countersubject are simultaneously intro-duced. When after an episode, short or long, the first develop-ment begins, the subject is taken up and answered tiy the parts in another order of succession. Supposing the alto to have begun before, the tenor or soprano or bass will begin now. Further, the imitations will be at different intervals of pitch and time. The drawing closer together of the subject and its answer, so that the latter begins before the former has completed its course, is called the stretto. This contrivance is especially resorted to in the last development. Other con-trivances that may be utilised are: the augmentation, diminution,
FÜHRER—FURORE.
'39

inversion, and retrogression of the subject. The stretto is fre-quently followed by a pedal-point, on which the subject is piled up in various layers, so as to form a striking conclusion to the whole. The matter out of which the episodes are wrought may be new, but offener (in order to insure unity) is derived from the subject, countersubject, or other accompaniments of the subject
An important division of fugues remains yet to be noticed— namely, that into real and tonal fugues. A real fugue is one in which the answer is an exact transposition of the subject; Atonal fugue is one in which the answer is an imitation of the subject slightly modified for the purpose of keeping within the same key.
Two words often heard in connection with fugues may be here explained. Coda, or codetta, is the name given to the notes which are appended to the subject when at its conclusion the answer does not strike in at once. Repercussion is the re-appearance of the subject and answer in a new order with regard to succession and pitch in the various developments of a fugue.
Double, triple, and quadruple fugues are fugues with two, three, and four subjects. See, however, the article Double fugue in Appendix. Various kinds of fugue are described under Fuga.
Führer (Ger.). Lit., "guide." The subject of a fugue.
Full Anthem, v. Anthem.
Full cadence, or Full close. v. Cadence.
Full score, v. Score.
Füllstimmen (Ger.). " Filling-up parts," not principal parts. Fundamental bass. A bass part which contains the fundamental notes of chords.
Fundamental note or tone. The lowest note of a chord reduced to a series of thirds placed one above the other. See also Harmonics.
Funebre (Fr.), Funebre, Funerale (It.). Funereal, funeral,
mournful, lugubrious.—Marche funebre, funeral march. Fünffach (Ger.). Five-fold. An adjective applied by organ builders
and organ players to a mixture stop that has five ranks of pipes. Fünfstimmig (Ger.). In five parts.
Funzioni (It.). Functions, offices, services—for instance, in the
Roman Catholic Church. Fuoco (It.). Fire.—Confuoco, with fire. FUOCOSO (It.). Fiery, ardent.
Furia (It.). Fury, rage, passion.—Con furia, passionately. Furibondo (It.). Furious, passionate. Furiosamente (It.). Furiously, passionately. Furioso (It.). Furious, passionate. Furlana (It.). The same as Forlana (q.v.).
Furniture. A mixture stop of the organ—i.e., a stop consisting of
several ranks of pipes. Furore (It.). Fury, rage, passion.—Con furore, passionately.

Fusa(Lat.). A quaver.
Fusee (Fr.). Lit., "a squib, a rocket." A rapid series of notes
ascending or descending by degrees. Fusella (Lat.). A demisemiquaver. Fusellala (Lat.). A semidemisemiquaver.
Fuss (Ger.). Foot. FÜSSig is the corresponding adjective, both words being used in connection with organ pipes and stops.— i-fiissig, or achlfiissig, of 8-feet pitch.


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