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Music Dictionary
-- E --

EL The name of the third degree of C major, the normal major scale.
and of the fifth degree of A minor, the normal minor scale. B (It.). And. Ed is generally used before a vowel.
Ebollimento, or Ebollizione (It.). Ebullition.
Écart (Fr. ). A stretch of the hand in playing.
Eccedente (It.). Exceeding. Applied to intervals this expression
has the meaning of : augmented, superP.uous. Ecclesiastical modes. The same as church modes (q.v.). EcCO(It.). An echo. Échelle (Fr.). A scale.
Echellette (Fr.). The same as Claquebois, Xylophone, and Stroh-Jicdel (q.v.).
Echo. (_) A sound reverberated, or reflected, from a solid surface.
(2) In music the softer repetition of an immediately preceding
strain, motive, or single note. (3) An old organ stop. (4) A
stop of the harpsichord. Éclisses (Fr.). The sides of a violin, violoncello, double bass,
guitar, &c. Eclogue. A pastoral. Eco (It.). An echo. École (Fr.). A school.
Écossaise (Fr.). An old dance of Scotch origin. It was of a grave character, and either in |r or f time. (2) The modern Écossaise is a lively contredanse in f time formerly popular in France, Germany, and other countries.
Ed (It.), v. E.
EdeKGer.). Noble.
E dur (Ger.). E major.
Effet (Fr.), Effetto (It.). An effect : a lesult obtained, an impres-sion produced. EgTiale (It.). Equal, even. EgTialmente (It.). Equally, evenly.
Emchorig' (Ger.). This term is applied (1) to any instrument which has but one string to each note ; (2) to a composition for one choir, to distinguish it from a composition for two or more distinct choirs.
Binfach (Ger.). Simple.
Eingang (Ger. ). Introduction.
Eingestrichen (Ger.). Having one stroke, line, or accen; : as, tingestrichene Octave, the one-lined, or once-accented, octave, (v. Introduction, $ III., p. 5, and § XV., p. $6.)


Einklang (Ger.). Unison. Einleitung (Ger.). Introduction. Einmal (Ger.). Once.
Einstimmen (Ger.). To put in tune. Said of the tuning of several instruments (their mutual adjustment as regards pitch) before a performance.
Einstimmig (Ger.). For one part.
Eintritt (Ger.). Entrance, beginning.
Eis(Ger.). E sharp.
Eisenvioline (Ger.). Nail-fiddle.
Eisis (Ger. ). E double sharp.
Elegante (It.). Elegant.
Elegantemente (It.). Elegantly.
Elegia (It.), Élégie (Fr.). An elegy, a poem or musical compo-sition expressive of sorrow, tender iegret, and longing. Elegiac. Expressing sorrow.
Elevatio (Lat.). Elevation, (i) The upbeat in beating time. (I) The unaccented part of a bar. (3) The rising of a melody beyond the ambitus (compass) of the mode. (4) A motet or _ any other vocal or instrumental composition performed during the elevation of the Host.
Elevation. To the four meanings given in the preceding article if to be added this : (5) The obsolete English name of two orna-ments. As one of the " smooth graces," it is synonymous with an ascending double appoggiatura, as one of the "shaked graces," it is more complicated.
Elevato (It.). Elevated, lofty, sublime.
Elevazione (It.). Elevation, [v. Elevatio.)
Élève (Fr.). A pupil.

Embellir (Fr.). To embellish, to ornament.
Embouchure (Fr.). (1) The mouthpiece of any wind instrument (2) The mode or art of producing the tone of a wind instrument E moll (Ger. ). E minor.
Empâter les SOllS ( Fr. ). To sing or play the notes smoothly and in a sweet, mellow manner. — Voix empalée, and exécution empâtée, a voice and an execution that lack neatness and clearness.
Empflndung (Ger. ). Feeling.
Empfindungsvoll (Ger.). Full of feeling, feelingly. Emphase (Fr.). Emphasis.
Emphasis. A stress.
Emporté ( Fr. ). Carried away by passion. Empressé (Fr.). Eager ; in haste. Enarmonico (It.). Enharmonic.
Enchiridion (from the Greek). A hand-book, a manual Encore (Fr.). Again, yet, also.
Energia (It.), Énergie (Fr.). Energy.
Energicamente (It.). Energetically, with energy. Energico 'It.V F.nereetic.

Energisch (Ger.). Energetic, vigorous.
Enfasi (It.). Emphasis.—Con enfasi, with emphasis.
EnfaticO (It.). Emphatic.
Eng (Ger.). Narrow, close.—Enge Harmonic, close harmony.
Engelstimme (Ger.). Vox angelica (q.v.).
Engfuhmng (Ger.). Close imitation, the strctto in a fugue.
Englisches Horn (Ger.). English horn, cor anglais (q.v.).
Enharmonic. (0 In our present system of music with its twelve equal semitones in the octave, those notes, intervals, and scales are called enharmonic which differ in notation but not in pitch. {v. Introduction, § V., p. 9.)—Enharmonic chords are chords which have in common one or several notes the same in pitch but different in notation. An enharmonic modulation is one by means of such chords. (2) With the ancient Greeks the word "enharmonic" had an entirely different meaning. In theii enharmonic genus, the tetrachord presented itself as a progression
o( two quarter tones and a major third ; for instance, <«+*_/ a (a development from the trichord e fa).
Ensemble (Fr.). Together. Taken substantively this word signi-fies : (1) Perfect harmony between different parts of a whole; {2) mutual understanding and entire agreement between the performers in rendering a composition. —A morceau d'ensemble is a composition for two or more parts, more especially quintets, sextets, septets, &c., in an opera, oratorio, or similar work.
Entr'acte (Fr.). (I) An interval between the acts of a dramatic performance. (2) What is played, sung, or danced between the acts of a dramatic performance.
Entrata (It.). An instrumental introduction to a larger musical composition.
Entr6e (Fr.). (1) Entry of a voice or instrument. (2) Introduction.
(3) Division of a ballet. Entschlossen (Ger.). Resolute, determined. Entusiasmo (It.). Enthusiasm. Entwurf (Ger.). Sketch, design, plan. Eolian. v. /Eolian.
Epicede (Fr.), Epicedio (It.), Epicediuin (Lat.). An epicede —i.e., a funeral song, an elegy.

Epigonion (Gk.). An ancient Greek instrvunent with forty strings, named after its inventor, or introducer, Epigonus.
EpigonOS (Gk.). Born after. The sons of the chiefs that fell in the first war against Thebes were called epigonoi, after-born. The expression is not unfrequently applied to composers that do not open new paths, but follow in the tracks of their predecessors.
Epilogue. A concluding piece; a concluding part. The common meanings of the word are: (1) A speech or short poem ad-dressed to the audience by one of the players at the end of a play ; (2) the concluding part of a discourse.


Öpinette (Fr.). A spinet.
Bpillicion (from the Greek). A song of victory. Epiodion (Gk.). A funeral song.
Episode. An incidental, accessory part of a composition, as dis-tinguished from the principal theme or themes and theii developments.
Epistrophe (from the Greek). Lit., " a wheeling about, a return." In music the recurrence at the end of a movement of a melody which had appeared in another movement of the same work.
Epithalamion (Gk.), Epithalamium (Lat.). A nuptial song.
Epode (from the Greek). Lit., "after-song." The concluding part of an ode ; what follows after the strophe and antistrophe. Also a kind of lyrical poem invented by Archilochus and cultivated by Horace.
Eptacorde (Fr.), Eptacordo (It.). (i) A scale of seven notes. (2) The interval of a seventh. (3) The seven-stringed lyre of the Greeks.
Equabile (It.). Equable, similar. Equabümente (It.). Equably, similarly. Equisonnance (Fi ). Consonance of unisons and of octaves. Equisono (It.). Equisonant—i.e., in unison or in octaves, double
octaves, treble octaves, &c. Ergriffen (Ger.). Struck, affected, moved.—Milgrosser Ergriffenhtit,
deeply affected, moved. Erhaben (Ger.). Sublime, exalted.
Erhöhung (Ger.). The raising of the pitch of a note. Erhöhungs-zeichen, the sign which indicates such a raising—i.e., a sharp (J) or double sharp ( x ).
Erniedrigung (Ger.). The lowering of the pitch of a note. —Erniedrigungszeichen, the sign which indicates such a lower-ing—i.e., a flat (?) or double flat (??).
Ernst (Ger.). Earnest, serious, grave.
Eroico (It.). Heroic. Eroica is the feminine form of the word. Erotic. Taken adjectively, this word signifies : amatory, pertaining
to or treating of love. As a substantive it designates: an
amorous poem or composition. Erotica (It.). A love-song. Erst (Ger.). First.—Erste violine, first violin.
Erweitert (Ger.). Extended.—Erweiterte Harmonie, extended harmony.
Erweiterung (Ger.). Extension, enlargement. By Erweiterung of the theme of a fugue is meant the enlargement of one of its intervals.
Es (Ger.). Eflat.
Esacordo (It.). (1) The interval of a sixth. (2) A hexachord (q.v.\ Es dur (Ger.). E flat major. Esecuzione (It.). Execution.

Esercizio (It.)- Exercise. Es moll (Ger.). E flat minor.
Espace ( Fr. ). Space—for instance, a space between the lines of the
Espagnol (Fr.)., Espagnolo (It.). Spanish. EspirandO (It.). Expiring, dying away.
Espressione (It.). Expression.—Con espressione, with expression.
Espressivo (It.). Expressive, with expression.
Essential notes. Notes belonging to the harmony, not passing or
changing notes. Estensione (It.). Compass.
Estinguendo (It.). Dying away, diminishing in loudness.
Estinto (It.). Lit., "extinguished, dead." In musical phraseology, the utmost degree of pianissimo.
Estravaganza (It.), (i) Extravagance. (2) An extravagant com-position.
Étendue (Fr.). Compass.
Étouffé (Fr.). Damped.
Étouffoirs (Fr.). The dampers of the pianoforte, Ettacordo (It.). The same as Eptacordo.
Étude (Fr.). A study. Strictly speaking a composition for practice in which the overcoming of some one technical difficulty is aimed at. There are, however, also études which are studies in expression or in phrasing. Further, during the last half-century it has been the fashion to write études de concert, concert studies —i.e., studies intended not merely for private practice, but also, perhaps chiefly, for public display. Not a few of these études de concert are indeed works of imagination and exquisite musician-ship.
Ev/bnia (It.). Euphony.
Euouae. A collocation of the vowels contained in and indicative of the words " Seculorum Amen." According to the old form of the letters : Evovae.
Euphon. A kind of glass harmonica with a compass from c toy"", invented by the great physicist, E. F. F. Chladni, about 1790. The tone of this instrument is produced by rubbing with moistened fingers strips of glass which communicate their vibra-tions to rods of metal.
Euphonie (Fr.). Euphony, agreeable sound.
Euphonium. A brass wind instrument with valves used in military bands. It stands most frequently either in the key of C or of B flat. The euphonium is a barytone instrument.
Evacuant (Ger.). The waste-pallet in the bellows of Hie organ.
Evirato ( It. ). A eunuch, a castrato.
Eversio, and Evolutio (Lat.). Inversion of the parts in double
counterpoint. Evovae. v. Euouae. Exequiœ (Lat.). Exequies, funeral rites.

Expression. The act of revealing the spiritual, the emotional con-tents of a composition, of interpreting the conceptions of an author. Read in connection with this § XI., p. 26, of the Introduction. Most, if not all, of the marks of expression used in music are to be found in § XV. and § XVI. (pp. 52—62) or the Introduction.
Expression Stop. v. Harmonium.
Extempore (Lat.). Without preparation, without premeditation,
on the spur of the moment. Extemporiren (Ger.). To extemporise, to improvise, to play
extempore—i.e., without previous preparation. Extended harmony, v. Close harmony.
Extraneous sharps and flats are such as do not belong to the key.
Extraneous modulation. A modulation to a remote, non-related key.
Extreme. (1) Augmented, in speaking of intervals. (2) The lowest and the highest parts, in speaking of part-writing 01 part-music.

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