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-- B --

B. (I) The name of the seventh degree of the normal major scale. (2) The German name of B flat, B natural being called H.
Bacchius. A metrical foot of one short and two long sylla-
bles : —
Bachelor of Music. The lower of the two musical degrees,
Doctor of Music being the higher. Bagatelle <Fr.,.
A trifle.


Bagpipe, of Bagpipes. An ancient wind instrument still in use in many countries, consisting of a leathern bag (into which the wind is conveyed through a tube, one end of which the player holds in his mouth) and from two to five pipes (on the shortest of them, the chanter, which has several finger-holes, the per-former plays the tune ; the others, the drone, produce each only one note, which they sustain throughout). The form and structure of this instrument vary in different countries and even in one and the same country. Bagpipes with more than one drone pipe have the smaller drone pipes generally tuned a fifth or an octave, or one a fifth and another an octave, above the fundamental note produced by the longest pipe, two ol the smaller pipes being often tuned in unison.
Baguettes (Fr.). Drumsticks.
Balalaika. A primitive Russian instrument, a kind of guitar Balancement (Fr.). The same as Bebung (q.v.). Balg (Ger.). The bellows of the organ. Balgtreter (Ger.) Bellows-treader. Balken (Ger.). The bass-bar.
Ballad. This word is derived from ballata (dancing song), which in its turn is derived from ballare (to dance). The popular meaning of ballad, in English, is "a simple song;" the specific and more widely accepted meaning is "a lyrico-narrative poem or the music to such a poem." Ballads have been composed for a single voice (which is the most reasonable course), for several voices, for chorus with and without accompaniment, and also for single instruments with and without accompaniment, and for orchestra.
Balladenmassig (Ger.). After the manner of a ballad. Ballata (It.). A ballad (q.v.).
Ballet, (i) An artistic, as distinguished from a social, dance per-formed by several persons. (2) A kind of opera in which there was not much of a plot but a great deal of dancing. (3) The representation of an action by pantomime and dancing. (4) A sprightly kind of composition for several voices which became popular at the end of the sixteenth century. As many of them had a Fa la burden, they were, in England, commonly called Fa las.
Balletto (It.). A ballet.
Balli (It.). Dances.—Balli inglesi, English dances; balli ungaresi,
Hungarian dances. Band (Ger.). A volume.
Band. A company of instrumental performers.
Banda (It). (1) A band of wind instruments and instruments of percussion. (2) The instruments of percussion in the orchestra.
Bande (Fr.). A band.
Bandora (It). An instrument of the cither kind. v. Cither and Pandora.)

Banjo. A long-necked stringed instrument the body of which con-sists of a broad hoop with a skin stretched over it. The strings, from five to nine, are variously tuned. Bänkelsänger (Ger.). An itinerant ballad singer. Bar. (i) The name of the perpendicular lines crossing the stave which divide musical compositions into small portions of equal length. (2) Also the name commonly given to the small portions formed by the dividing perpendicular lines, which, however, are more properly called measures, (v. Introduction,
, x., p. 31.)
Bars did not come into more general use till about the middle of the seventeenth century. In scores they are to be met with cen-turies before that time, but for the most part only in theoretical books, as it was not then the custom to print compositions in score. With the rise of the monodic style in Italy, towards the end of the sixteenth century, bars came to the fore, as the publications with a basso continuo prove. The systems of notation called Tablature have almost always made use of bars.
Barcarola, or Barcaruola (It.), Barcarolle (Fr.), Bar-carole (Ger.). An Italian, more especially a Venetian, boat-man's song. Also a vocal or instrumental piece in imitation of, or similar in character to, such songs. They are generally in compound ternary time, oftenest in % time.
Bard. A poet and minstrel among the various Celtic nations.
Bardiet, or Bardit (Ger.). A war-song of the ancient Germans
Bardone. This is a corruption of Bordone (q.v.).
Barem (Ger.). An old name for the organ stop Stillgedackt [f.v.).
Baribasso (It.). A deep bass voice.
Baritenore (It.). A low tenor voice.
Bariton (Fr. and Ger.). Baritone, or Barytone [i/.v.).
Baritone, v. Barytone.
Baritono (It). Barytone.
Barocco (It.), Barock (Ger), Baroque (Fr.). Strange, wlum
sical, eccentric. Barra (It.). A bar-line.
Barre (Fr.). (1) A bar-line. Some abbreviations are likewise
called barres. (2) The low bridge of some stringed instruments;
as harre de ¡U/h, a lute bridge. Barrö (Fr.). In guitar playing the placing of the forefinger of the
left hand on several strings. The placing of the forefinger on
more than three strings is called grand barrJ.
Barre de mesure (Fr.). A bar-line.
Barre de repetition (Fr.). A double bar with dots, indicating a
Barrel-organ. An organ in which the keys which give the wind access to the pipes are acted upon by pins (staples) fixed on a cylinder which is made to revolve by turning a handle. This turning of the handle sets also the wind-producing mechanism in motion. Besides portable stree' barrel-organs, there are also 0


non-portable church barrel-organs and barrel-organs for dancing saloons, &c. Baryphonus (Lat.). A bass singer.
Baryton, or Barytone, (i) The male voice which is higher in pitch than the bass and lower than the tenor, and participates to some extent in the character of both. Its usual compass is from A to f. (2) A brass instrument with valves having a compass of three octaves, from B,? to b'p, or from C to c". (3) The viola a'i bordone (or bardone), a stringed instrument which went out of use in the second half of the eighteenth century. It had six or seven catgut strings above the finger-board, which were played with the bow, and from eight to twenty-seven wire strings below the finger-board, which were plucked and sounded sympatheti-cally with the upp^r ones. (4) The word barytont is often used as an epithet to indicate an instrument related to other instruments as the barytone voice to other voices.
Barytone clef. The F clef on the third line of the stave 7-^ -It is now no longer used. (v. Introduction, y III., P- 5-)
Bas-deSSUS (Fr.). Mezzo soprano (q.v.). Base. An obsolete iorm of the word "bass."
Bass. (1) The lowest part in a composition. (2) The lowest mem-ber of every family of instruments. (3) The lowest male voice. (v. Bass voice.)
Bassa (It.). Low.—Ottava bassa, or all' ottava bassa, indicatesthat the
notes thus marked have to be played or sung an octave lower
than they are written. Bass-bar. A thin strip of wood glued to the inner side of the
belly of a violin and similarly constructed instruments. Bass clef. The F clef on the fourth line. (v. Introduction, § III.,
P- 5-)

Basse chantante (Fr.). The high bass voice, or a singer who has such a voice. The more flexible "singing bass " (basso cantante) as distinguished from the " deep bass (basso profondo).
Basse chiffrée (Fr.). Figured bass (q.v.).
Basse continue (Fr.). Thoroughbass, (v. Basso continue)
Basse contrainte (Fr.). Ground bass (q.v.).
Basse-COntre (Fr.). The same as " basse "—i.e., bass.
Basse de cromóme (also written cremorne) and Basse de
hautbois (Fr.). Old French names for the bassoon; but also the names of the lowest members of the oboe and cromorne families.
Basse de viole (Fr.). Bass viol. Basse flgurée (Fr.). Figured bass (q.v.). Basse fundaméntale (Fr.). Fundamental bass.
Basse recitante (Fr.). A solo bass.
Basse-taille (Fr.). The name of the male voice that lies between the basse (bass) and taille (tenor)—namely, the barytone. The expression is also used synonymously with basso cantante.
Basset-horn. A variously bent and constructed instrument of the clarinet family no longer used by composers. It is said to have been invented in 1770. Its compass extends from F to d".
Bassetto (It.). (1) A small double bass. (2) The lowest part where the bass is silent. (3) An 8 or 16-feet reed-stop in the organ.
Bassflote (Ger.). A bass flute; the lowest member of theoldfamil) of straight, or direct, flutes (FMtes a bee).
Bassgeige (Ger.). Violoncello.—Grosse Bassgeige, double
Bass horn. A wind instrument in form like a large bassoon, with a compass of four octaves, from C or Bp upwards.
Basso (It.). (1) A bass voice or singer. (2) A bass instrument, more especially the double bass. (3) The bass part.
Basso buffo (It.). A bass singer who sings comic parts.
BaSSO cantante (It.). (1) The vocal bass in contradistinction to the instrumental. (2) The higher and more flexible "singing bass" in contradistinction I" the heavy "deep bass" (basso profondo).
BaSSO COntinUO (It.). A continuous, or thorough, bass, which may be figured or not. Formerly, when accompaniments were not always written in full, such a basso continuo served the accom-panist as a guide. It came into use towards the end of the six-teenth century.
BaSSO figlirato (It.). A figured bass ff.v.).
Basso fondamentale (It.). A fundamental bass.
Basson (Fr.). A bassoon.
Basso numerato (It). A figured bass.
Bassoon. A wood wind instrument with a double reed mouth-piece, invented about 1539, and since then much improved. The Italian name fagotto (fagot, bundle of sticks) describes some what its outward appearance. Its usual compass extends from Bfi to b'V ; its extreme upper limit is r"p. Music for the bas-soon is written in the bass and tenor clefs, the latter clef being used for the higher notes.
BaSSO OStinatO, also baSSO obbligato (It.). Ground bass.
BaSSO profondo (It.). A deep bass. (v. Basso cantante.)
Basso ripieno. (It.). Lit., "the filling up bass"—namely, the bass played by all the performers in contradistinction to that played only by one or a few. (?>. Kipieno.)
Basspommer (Ger.). The lowest member of the Pommer family (v. Pommer.)
Bassposaune (Ger.). Bass trombone, (v. Trombone.) BaSSSchliissel (Ger.). Bass clef. Bassstimme (Ger.). Bass voice. Bass tuba. v. Tuba. Bass viol. v. Viol.
Bass voice. The lowest kind of the human voice. Its most common compass is from F to d' or e'p, which, however, is often exceeded at one or the other end, or at both ends. One distinguishes two species of bass voice: the àasso cantante and the basso pro fondo. {v. Basso cam ante. ) Bâton (Fr.). A stick used for beating time.

Battement (Fr.). An obsolete trill-like ornament. It consisted in the repealed alternation of a principal and an auxiliary note, the latter, a degree below the former, beginning the trill. As there was no sign for this ornament, it had to be written in full.
Battimento (It). Battement.

Battuta (It.). (I) A bar, a measure. (2) A beat.—A battu a, is
time (lit., "by the beat "). Bail (Ger. ). Structure.—Ban einer Violine, structure of a violin.
Bauerflôte, Bauernflote, or Bauerpfeife (Ger.). " Rustic
flute." An obsolete organ stop of stopped pipes on the pedals. It occurred of I, 2, and 4-feet pitch.
Bb. The German name of B double flat.
B cancellatum (Lat. ). The sharp ($).
B dur (Ger.). B flat major.
B durum (Lat.). The note B natural.
Bearbeitet (Ger.). Revised, adapted, or touched up.
Bearbeitung (Ger.). Revision or adaptation.
Beat. ( 1) A melodic ornament, by some described as a mordent, by others as a battement. (2) The movement of the hand or foot in marking the time, and the corresponding division of the bar.
Beats. The pulsation, or throbbing, most distinctly heard when two notes slightly differing in pitch are sounded together.
Bebungf (Ger.). Tremolo. A mode of singing or playing by which a tremulous effect is produced. On the old clavichord this was done by the quick balancing of a finger on a key. On stringed instruments without keys it is done by the quick balancing of a finger on a string.
Bécarre (Fr.). The natural (JJ).
Bee (Fr.). Lit., "beak." A mouthpiece like that of the clarinet,
flageolet, &c. Becco (It. 1. The same as Bee. Becoo polaCCO (It.). A large kind of bagpipe. Becken vGer. ). Cymbals.
Bedeokt (Ger.). Stopped. Said of strings, in contradistinction to leer, open.
Begeisterung (Ger. ). Enthusiasm, inspiration. Begleiten (Ger.). To accompany Begleitung (Ger.). Accompaniment.
Beisser (Ger.). A mordent. \v. Introduction, § XIV., p. 47.)
Bell. (1) The more or less bell-like expansion which terminates the tubes of most wind instruments. (2) An instrument of percus-sion consisting of a hollow vessel of metal or glass, which is set in vibration either by a clapper hanging within or by a separate hammer.
Bell diapason. An open organ stop, generally of 8-feet pitch
Bellezza (It.)- Beautv.

Bell gamba. A sweet toned organ stop. Bellicosamente (It.). Martially, in a warlike manner. BellicoSO (It.) Martial, warlike.
Bell metronome. A metronome with a small bell that n.^rksth"
first beat of every bar or group of beats. Belly. (1) The upper part of the sound-box of an instrument, thai
part over which the strings are stretched. (2) Also the suund
board of the pianoforte. Bemol (Fr.). The flat 0). Bemolle (It.). The flat (p). Bemoliser (Fr.). To put a flat before a note. Bemollizzare (It.). To put a flat before a note.
Bene, or ben (It.). Well.
BenedictUB (Lat.). A part of the mass. Ben marcato (It.). Well marked.
Ben pronunziato (It.). Distinctly, clearly pronounced.
Ben tenuto (It.). Well sustained.
Bequadro (It.), j Th ,
Bequarre (Fr.). | lne natural W
Berceuse (Fr.). A cradle song, lullaby.
Bergamasca (It.). An obsolete dance, the name of which
derived from Bergamo, the town in Lombardy. Bes (Ger.). B double flat, more commonly called Bb. Betont (Ger.). Emphasised. Bewegt (Ger.). Stirred, agitated, impassioned. Bewegung (Ger.). Motion, movement, agitation, emotion. Bezifierter Bass (Ger.). Figured bass. Bianca (It.). A minim.
Bichord. An instrument with two strings, or an instrument the strings of which are tuned in pairs, each pair in unison. A bichord pianofortr is one with two strings to each key.
Bicinium (Lat.). A composition in two parts.
Bimolle (It.). The same as bemolle.
Binary measure. A measure in which the first of every two members has the accent. Common time. (v. Introduction, , X., p. si.)
Bind. A curved line is called a bind or tie when it is placed over or under two notes of the same pitch in order that they may be played or sung as one note. In every other case this sign is called a slur.
Bindung (Ger.). (1) A syncopation. (2) A dissonance with its consonant preparation.
BindungSZeicnen (Ger.). A bind, tie.
Biquadro (It.). The same as bequadro (q.v.).
Birn (Ger.). That part of the clarinet, basset-horn, &c, into which the mouthpiece is inserted. The original meaning of the word is " pear."
Bifl (Lat.). Twice.


Bischero (It.). Bischeri are the pegs to which one end of the
strings of stringed instruments (violin, guitar, &c.) are fastened,
and by means of which they are tuned. Biscroma (It.), Biscrome (Fr.). A demisemiquaver. Bisdiapason. The double octave, or fifteenth. Bisser (Er.). To encore.
Bissex (Lat.). An instrument of the guitar class with twelve
Bis unca (Lat.). A semiquaver. Bizzarramente (It.). Oddly, strangely. Bizzarria (It.). Oddity, whim, extravagance. Bizzarro (It.). Odd, whimsical. Blanche (Fr.). A minim note.
Blaser (Ger.). A performer or performers on wind instrument!.
Blasinstrumente (Ger.). Wind instruments.
Blatt (Ger.). A leaf; a reed. The single reed of the clarinet and
of the basset-horn. Blechinstrumente (Ger.). Brass instruments. Blochflöte, or Blockflöte (Ger.), (i) A straight, or direct, flute,
with a plugged mouthpiece, a flute ä bee. (2) A soft-toned
organ stop.
B moll (Ger.). B flat minor. B molle (Lat.). B rotundum {q.v.\ Bocal (Fr.). The mouthpiece of the horn, trombone, &c* Bocca (It.). The mouth.
Bocchino (It.). The mouthpiece of the trumpet, horn, trombone, &c.
Bockstriller (Ger.). Lit., "a goat-trill." A bad shake, an iteration of one note instead of an alternation of two.
Boden (Ger.). The back of the sound-box of a musical instrument— for instance, of a violin.
Bogen (Ger.). (1) A bow, such as the violin and other stringed instruments are played with. (2) A slur or tie : ^"—v
Bogenfübrung (Ger.). The art or mode of bowing.
Bogenstrich (Ger.). A stroke of the bow.
Bolero (Sp.). A Spanish national dance in f time, rhythmically somewhat resembling the polonaise, but of a more lively character. It is generally accompanied with castanets.
Bombard. (1) An obsolete family of instruments of the shawm, or oboe, class. The Germans call it Pommer. (2) A reed-stop in the organ.
Bombarde (Fr.). A bombard.
Bombardino (It.). A small bombard, the smallest of the family. Bombardo (It.). A bombard.
Bombardon. A powerful brass wind instrument, either oblong or circular in shape. There is one in E flat, and a larger one in B Sat (contrabass bombardon). Bombardons in F are less common. These instruments are used as basses in military bands.
Bombardone (It.). A large bombard, the largest of the family.

Bombix (Gk.). A Greek reed instrument. Also a name of the bombard.
Bon temps de la mesure (Fr.). The accented part of a bar. Bourdon (Fr.). (i) A drone bass. (2) An organ stop of stopped pipes, mostly of wood, and of 16-feet pitch. (3) The lowest [C] string of the violoncello. Bourrée (Fr.). A lively old French dance in £ or \ time. Boutade (Fr.). An instrumental piece like a caprice or fantasia. (2) An old French dance. (3) A kind of short ballet which was performed as if the performers set about it impromptu. Bow. An instrument consisting of an elastic wooden rod and a num-ber of horse-hairs stretched from the bent head to the movable nut. It is used in playing on the violin and many other stringed instruments which are made to sound by friction, the bow being drawn over the strings and setting them in vibration. B quadratum, or B quadrum (Lat.). (1) The note B natural.
(2) The sign {J, the natural.
Brace. A bracket connecting two or more staves. Branle, or Bransle (Fr.). A brawl. Brp.tsche (Ger.). The viola, or tenor violin.
Bravo, m. sing.; Brava, f. sing. ; Bravi, m. plur. ; Brave, f.
plur. (It.). Brave, courageous, skilful. An exclamation ex-pressive of approbation, signifying '' Well done 1" BraVOUre (Fr.). Bravura.
Bravura (It.). Bravery, spirit; brilliant, skilful execution. Brawl. An old country-dance. A round. Breit (Ger.). In a broad, stately manner.
Breve. The note which has double the length of a semibreve and four times the length of a minim; the longest note now ever used. (v. Introduction, § IX., pp. 17, 18.)
Brevis (Lat.). A breve, (v. Introduction, p. 55.)
Bridge. A piece of wood on which the strings of stringed instruments rest, and which itself rests on the resonance-box, or resonance-board (sound-box, or sound-board), to which it transmits the vibrations of the strings.
Brillant (Fr.), Brillante (It.). Brilliant, sparkling.
Brillenbasse (Ger.). Lit., "spectacle basses." A kind of baa called thus on account of its resemblance to a pair of spectacles.

Brindisi (It.). A drinking song.
Brio (It.). Vivacity, fire.—Con brio, with fire and vivacity. Brioso (It.). Fiery, in a spirited manner. Brise" (Fr.). Broken, played arpeggio. Broderies (Fr.). Ornaments.
Broken cadence. An interrupted cadence, (v. Cadence.)


Broken Chord Arpeggio (a.v.).
B rotundum (Lat.). The Latin name of the note B flat, and also
of the sign p, the flat, (v Accidentals.) Brummeisen (Ger.). A Jew's-harp.
Buccina (Lat.) A wind instrument of the ancient Romans, a trumpet, a horn.
Buccolico.Buccolica (It.), Bucolique (Fr.). Bucolic; pastoral, rustic.
Buffo, m., Buffa, f. (It.), (i) Comic, humorous. (2) A singer oi
a comic part. Bufibne (It.). A buToon, a jester.
BuffoneSCO, m., B'affonesca, f. (It.). Droll, ludicrous.
Bufibnescamente (It.). In a droll, ludicrous manner.
Bugle, (i) A brass wind instrument; the signal horn for the in-fantry. (2) Two kinds of brass wind instruments, the one with keys (the Kent bugle) and the other with valves.
Biihnenweihfestspiel (Ger.). Lit., "Stage-consecrating festival play." Thus Wagner called his last dramatic work, Parsifal.
Bundfrei (Ger.). "Unfretted." A clavichord was said to be buitdfrei when it had a separate string for each note. {v. Gebunden.)
Buonaccordo (It.). A small spinet with narrow keys for the use
of children. Ruona nota (It.). Accented note. Buon gnsto (It.). Good taste.
Burden. (1) Chorus, or refrain, of a song. (2> A drone ; for instance,
that of the bagpipe. Burla(It.). A joke.
Burlando (It.). Jesting, joking, romping.
Burlescamente (It.). In a burlesque, merry, comical manner. BurleSCO, m., Burlesca, f. (It.). Burlesque, facetious, comic,
merry.—Burlesca, a piece of a burlesque character. Burletta (It.). A burlesque operetta ; a whimsical farce.

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Classical Era Music
Romantic Era Music
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