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Music Dictionary
Appendix



[An asterisk (*) at the commencement of an article signifies that tht article is a continuation of one in the body of the Dictionary.~\

oAbbreviations. In addition to those given on pp. 58—62 may yet be noted : B.G. for Bassus generalis, or Basso generate (i.e., thorough bass) ; C. for Cantus, or Canto (q.v.).

Accelerato (It.). Accelerated.
Accidenti (It.). Accidentals.
Accord a l'ouvert (Fr.). A chord which requires no stopping,
but can be played on the open strings. Accordatoio (It.). A tuning-key. Accouple (Fr.). Coupled. Accouplement (Fr.). A coupler. Acuto (It.). Acute, sharp, high.
A duoi and a doi (It.). The same as a due. Duoiand dot are obsolete spellings of due.
A-la-mi-re. In solmisation the name of two notes, of a (Alamirt acutum) and of a' (Alamire supe* icuturn).
Albumblatt (Ger.). Album leaf, a title often given to short instru-mental pieces.
Alia francese (It.). In the French style.
Allegro allegro (It.). Very quick, quicker than allegro (q.v.). Allein (Ger.). Alone. Sanfte Stimmen allein, soft stops alone. Allora (It.). Then.
Alto viola (It.). The same as viola, or tenor violin. Angloise (Fr.). Old spelling of Anglaise (q.v.). Antibacchius. A metrical foot of three syllables; the first two
long, and the third short. Antico, m. ; Antica, f. (It.). Ancient. Antifonario (It.). Antiphonary.
Anwachsend (Ger.). Increasing — for instance, in loudness;
crescendo.
Arcato (It.). Played with the bow. Archeg'giare (It.). To play with the bow. A-re. In solmisation the name of the note A. A six temps (Fr.). % time.
All (Fr.). Contraction of the preposition a and the masculine form
(le) of the definite article, signifying : to the, in the. Authente (Fr.). Authentic.
Avicinium (Lat.). An organ stop that imitates the warbling oi birds.
Backfall, (i) One of the old English graces, an appoggiatura, (2) A member of that part of the organ mechanism which inter-venes between a key and the corresponding pallet; it is a hori-zontal lever which, when raised at the one end by a sticker, draws down with the other end (which " falls back") the tracker communicating with the pallet. <p. Organ.)
Barbiton, Barbitos (Grk. and Lat.). This instrument is held to have been by some a kind of long-bodied lyre, by others a kind of dulcimer.
BaSSO COStretto (It.). The same as basso ostinato (ft.).
Bebisation. A system of solmisation (originated by Daniel Hitzler in the first half of the seventeenth century) in which the notes received the following syllabic names: la (a), be (bp),ce(c), de (d) mi (c),fe (/), «r (g), bi (b), ci (< *), di (dp, me (eh. fi (/$), and gi (gf).
oBedeckt (Ger.). Muffled. In this sense this word is used in con-nection with the kettle-drums.
B-fa-mi. In solmisation the name of two notes, of b (Bfami acutum) and of b' (Bfami suferacutum).
Bifara (Lat.). An open stop consisting of pipes with two mouths, by which an undulating sound is produced.
Biliary form. A form consisting of two parls, or built up from two subjects. The "heorists are not at one in the definition of this by no means common expression. Used in connection with modern music binary form is synonymous with sonata (first move-ment) form. Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley describes in his " Treatise on Musical Form" two varieties of the ancient binary form, and remarks: "Most old songs are written on this model, and we find it in Gavottes, Corantos, Rigadoons, Jigs, and other old-fashioned dance-tunes, such as were used to make up ' sets ' 01 'suites de pieces,' down to the days of Bach and Handel." The first variety has this structure : (1) Principal subject, combining passages (modulating into dominant key), second subject (in dominant key) ; (2) principal melody (transposed into dominant key), combining passages (modulating into principal key), and second melody (in principal key). The second variety presents itself thus : (1) Principal melody leading into secondary melody (in dominant key and returning to principal key) ; (2) new melody (in relative minor or major) with secondary melody (as in the first division), after which the first division is repeated.
Bisbigliando (It.). Whispering, murmuring.
B-mi. In solmisation the name of the note B.
Bobisation, or Bocedisation. A system of solmisation (attributed
to Hubert Waelrant; sixteenth century) which substituted for the six Guidonian the following seven syllables: bo, ce, di, ga, lo, ma, ni.
oBocal (Fr.). Although this word is commonly applied as explained in the body of the Dictionary, the more proper application is to the curved metal tube on which the reed of the bassoon, cor anglais, &c, is stuck.
Bogenclavier, Bogenfliigel, Bogenklavier (Ger.). Bow-
piano. Thus are called keyboard instruments strung with gut strings, the tone of which is produced by a cylinder (kept revolv-ing by means of a pedal) made of gutta-percha or of any other material covered with horse-hair, and in either case well rubbed with rosin.
Bogenguitarre (Ger.). v. Guitare d'amour. Bourlesca. v. Burlesca.
Oantata da camera (It.). A chamber cantata. A vocal com-position (in vogue in the seventeenth and in the first half of the eighteenth century) consisting of a mixture of recitative and air, oftenest for one voice, sometimes for two and even more voices, with instrumental accompaniment.
Cantata da chiesa (It.). A church cantata.
Cattivo tempo (It-). "Bad time"—i.e., the unaccented part of a bar. Cauda (Lat.). "Tail." The stem of a note. C-fa-ut. In solmisation the name of the note c. Chansonnier (Fr.). (1) A song-writer. (2) A collection, a book,
of songs.
Check-action. The check is a contrivance in the pianoforte mechanism by which the hammers are prevented from rebound-ing. In grand pianos the checks are behind, in cottage pianos before the hammers.
Cifratp (It.). Figured.
Cinelli, or rather Cinelle (It). Cymbals. The word is an abbre-viation of bacinelle, which primarily signifies "little basins."
Colorato (It.). Coloured. Contrappunto colorato, florid counter-point.
Commodetto (It.). Somewhat commodious, leisurely. Componista (It.). A composer. Composizione (It.). A composition. Composto (It). Composed.
Conductus (Lat.), Conduit (Fr.). A not clearly definable mediaeval form of musical composition in parts. It is dis-tinguished from other forms in that the counterpoint was added to a melody composed for the purpose, not to a cantus firmus or any already existing melody.
Consort. This word is synonymous with concent and concert, and formerly was used in the following senses : (1) Harmony of sounds ; (2) a composition for several instruments ; (3) a set—for instance, a consort of viols, (v. Chest of viols.)
Contrapunctus ad videndum (Lat.), Contrappunto
(It.) ad videndum. Written counterpoint, in contradis-tinction to improvised counterpoint {contrappunto alla mente). Coro favorito (It.). The select chorus, in contradistinction to the full chorus.
Coro spezzato (It.). A "broken-up chorus "—i.e., a composition for several choirs which are placed in different parts of the church.
Corrente (It.). Running.
Costretto (It.)- Constrained, forced, obliged, {v. Basso costretto.)
Coulisse (Fr. ). A slide—for instance, that of a trombone.
Counter-tenor clef. The same as the alto clef—namely, the C clef on the third line. [v. p. 5.)
Csàrdâs (Magyar). A Hungarian (Magyar) dance in % or | time. Triple time is very exceptional, and not true to the national character. The Csârdâs (from Csdrda, inn on the heath) is often preceded by a moderate movement called Lassu (from Lassan, slow), the quick movement is called Fris (from the German frisch, fresh, brisk, lively).
Cuivre (Fr.). Brass. The brass instruments of an orchestra or band.
Cuivrer (Fr.). This word occurs sometimes in scores and the parts for brass instruments, more especially the horn. Faire cuivrer signifies : to produce a brassy sound, to make the brass ring.
Cyclical forms. Extensive compositions consisting of several separate movements, such as the sonata, symphony, and concerto of modern times, and the suite and partita of a more remote age,
Cymbalom, Cymbalon. A dulcimer.
Danse macabre (Fr.). Dance of Death.
Découplez (Fr.). Uncouple. An expression used in organ music,
'Diapason (Fr.). (1) Extent of a voice or instrument. (2) Tuning-fork. (3) Pitch.
D-la-SOl. In solmisation the name of the note d".
D-la-SOl-re. In solmisation the name of the note d1.
"Dominant. The dominants of the several Church Modes (q.v.) are as follows : (1) Dorian, a; (2) Hypodorian,/; (3) Phrygian, c ; (4) Hypophrygian, a; (5) Lydian, c; (6) Hypolydian, a; (7) Mixolydian, d; (8) Hypomixolydian, c; (9) Mo\ia.n, e; (10) Hyposeolian, c; (11) Hyperaeolian, g; (12) Hyperphrygian, t [''] ! (!3) Ionian, g ; (14) Hypoionian, e.
'Double baSS. Double basses with four strings are, however, now to be found in almost all good orchestras.
Double fugue. A fugue with two subjects. Sometimes the name is also given to fugues with more than two subjects. Two kinds of double fugue have to be distinguished : ( 1 ) That in which two subjects are first separately worked out and only subsequently combined ; (2) that in which the second subject enters at once with the first subject as a constant counter-subject.
Douçaine (Fr.). The same as Dolciano (q.v.). D-SOl-re. In solmisation the name of the note d. Duole (Ger.). A duplet.
Duplet. A couple of notes which divides a bar or part of a bar into
two equal portions. E-la. In solmisation the name of the note t'\
E-la-fa. In solmisation the name of E flat, which, however, came
into use only at a later time. E-la-mi. In solmisation the name of two notes, of e (Elami grave)
and of e' {Elami acutum). Emiolia (Lat.). v. Hemiolia.
Fancies. This obsolete English term deserves a few words in addi-tion to the definition given in the body of the Dictionary sub voce " Fantasia." (1) The instrumental pieces called Fantasias (also written Fantaziasand Phantasias), Fancies (or Fansies), &c, were at first mostly of a fugal nature. Those which Dr. Burney had in his possession were for viols, and " consisted more of motets, madrigals, and in nomines [q.v. in Appendix], originally designed for voices, than of fantasie made expressly for instru-ments." Christopher Simpson writes in 1667 that "this kind of music is now much neglected, by reason of the scarcity of auditors that understand it ; their ears being better acquainted and more delighted with light airy music." He names as the best composers of Fancies in England : Alfonso Ferabosco, Coperario, Lupo, Mico, White, Ward, Dr. Colman, and Jenkins. (2) We find the term " Fancies " also applied to vocal compositions, and to short lively tunes.
Faucet (Fr.). The same as fausset (q.v.).
F-fa-ut. In solmisation the names of two notes, of / (Ffaut grave)
and of /' (Ffaut acutum).
Flûte allemande (Fr.). The cruss-flute. {v. Fhite.)
Flûte anglaise (Fr.). The direct, or beak, flute, {v. Flute.) Frischka. A Slavonic form of the Magyar Fris, a word which is
explained sub voce "Csârdâs " in this Appendix. Fugara (Lat.). A bright-toned, slow-speaking organ stop; a kind
of small-scale Gamba. Gamba. An organ stop similar in tone to the viola da gamba (q.v.),
from which it derives its name. Grand chœur (Fr.). Full organ ; the combination of all or most
of the stops of the instrument. G-Sol-re-ut. In solmisation the name of two notes, of g (Gsolreut
grave) and of g' (Gsolreut acutum). Guidonian hand. v. Harmonic hand.
Harmonic hand. A device for fixing the system of solmisation in the memory of learners, the six Guidonian syllables and theii mutations being respectively assigned to the articulations and tips of the fingers. Although often called Guidonian, the har-monic hand is of later date than Guido.
'Harmonics. Insert in tenth line of the article " Harmonics," in the body of the Dictionary, after "vihralions" the words "of the thirds," and after "string " a comma.
Harpe seolienne (Fr.). (i) An yEolian harp (?.».). (2) A har-monium stop.
Hitch-pin. v. Pianoforte.
Hopper, v. Jack.
Hopser (Ger.). An obsolete dance in f time. There was also a Hopswalztr (hopping waltz) in triple time.
Hoquet (Fr.), Hoquetus, Hocetus, Hocketue, Hoc-
quetus (Lat.). ». Ochetus.
In nomine (Lat.). A term of some obscurity, of which the following meanings may be indicated : (1) A kind of motet which derives its name from some Bible text in which the words occur. (2) An irregular fugue, a composition which is a fugue only "in name."
*Jeu (Fr.). This word is used in several compound expressions in the sense of " musical instrument "—for instance, jeu de cloches, jeu de timbres, carillon, Glockenspiel.
Jeu d'orgue (Fr.). The same as orgue—namely, organ.
Just intonation. We speak of " just intonation in contradis-tinction to "tempered intonation." The one is given by nature, the other suggested by art and demanded by instruments with fixed tones (organ, piano, &c). Besides this specific meaning, the phrase has also a general one, just being in the latter case synonymous with correct or appropriate, (v. Temperament and Intonation.)
Kniegnitarre (Ger.). v. Guitare d'amour.
Lacrimosa (Lat.). A part of the sequence Dies irœ, which is sung in the mass for the deaj. (v. Requiem.)
Lesson. A name formerly given to pieces written for an instrument. The word did not signify a fixed form—a distinct style of compo-sition. A lesson was only sometimes a study.
Leuto (It.)- v Liuto.
Litice (Lat.). v. Lituus.
Liticen (Lat.). A lituus player.
Lituus (Lat.). (1) A curved trumpet of the Romans. (2) The
Latin name of the cornetto and shawm. (3) An organ stop. Long, v Longa and p. 55.
Maîtrise (Fr.). A school in which the choir boys of a cathedral get
their musical education. Mano armonica (It.). Harmonic hand (?.».).
ManUS (lat.). Hand ; harmonic hand (?.».). M61oplaste (Fr.). A contrivance from which the mithode de mile-plaste, invented by Pierre Galin, of Bordeaux, in 1817, takes its name. It consists of a board with a stave of five lines and some auxiliary lines, on which the teacher shows the notes he wishes his class to sing by means of a rod which has at one end a small knob.
Monferina (It.)- A gay Italian dance in f time, especially danced in Piedmont and Lombardy.
Montx'6 (Fr.). An organ stop, the pipes of which are placed in front of the instrument—a " mounted " diapason (8 feet), double diapason (16 feet), or double double diapason (32 f^et).
Musicista (It.)- A musician Musicisti is the plural
Nenia. A funeral song, an elegy.
*Oboi (It.). The plural of oboe {q.v.).
Ocarina (It.). A family of recently invented primitive wind instru-ments of terra-cotta, in shape not unlike the body of a bird. They have a hollow flute-like tone.
Ochetus (Lat.). The primary meaning of hoquet is " hiccup." In mediteval music this term was applied to "a truncated discant," namely, a discant, to use Coussemaker's definition, " in which the notes of one or of several parts were intersected or interrupted by rests."
Orchestrina di camera. This small keyboard free-reed instru-ment was invented about twenty-five years ago by W. E. Evans, who made it with oboe, flute (or violin), bassoon, violoncello, clarinet, and !_ rench horn compass. Thus there was a family of six members. The orchestrinas di camera were intended both for solo and ensemble playing (trios, quartets, &c). In the orchestra they have been employed as substitutes for the oboe, clarinet, &c.
Orchestrino. An instrument of the class described under " Bogen-clavier " (v. Appendix). It was invented, in 1808, by Pouleau, of Paris, and imitated the tone of the violin, viola d'amore, and violoncello.
Organosfraphia (Lat.). The description of instruments.
Orgne de Barbarie (Fr.). A barrel-organ.
Orpttarion, or Orpherion. A flat-backed instrument with many-curved sides belonging to the cither kind ; that is to say, it was strung with wire strings.
Oeservato (It.). Carefully observed, practised according to rule. Stile osservato, strict style.
Overtones, v. Harmonics.
Pair. The word "pair" was in former times often used with the name of certain instruments—for instance, "pair of organs," "pair of virginals." This, however, had not the meaning of " double "or "a couple." It was a way of speaking, implying a number of things resembling each other, just as in " pair of stairs," "pair of cards," "pair of chessmen" (instead of "flight," and " pack," and " set "). The number of things re-sembling each other were, no doubt, in the organ the pipes, in the virginal the strings.
Pallets, v. Organ.
Panmelodion. The tone of this keyboard instrument U produced by the friction of a cylinder on metal bars. It was invented, in
1810, by Franz Leppich, of Vienna. Pantalonzug (Ger. ). A stop in the old clavecins, by which the
tone of the Pantaleon (q.v.) was imitated. Partheyen, Partien (Ger.). The same as Partita (q.v.). Partial tones. v. Harmonics.
Pavillon en l'air (Fr.). Wilh the bell turned upwards. A direc-tion to horn players.
Phorminx (Gk.). A stringed instrument of ancient Greece, a kind of lyre.
Pianista (It.). (1) A pianist. (2) A mechanical contrivance foi playing the piano. The machine is sel in motion by a handle, and the music is performed by means of perforated card-board.
Pin. Pins are to be found in the mechanism of various instruments— for instance, the pianoforte (q.v.).
Piuttosto, or Piu tosto (It.). Sooner, rather.
Pizzicato (It. )_ "Pinched." A direction to players on instruments of the violin family to produce the notes thus marked by pluck-ing the strings with the finger, instead of setting them in vibra-tion by means of the bow. The use of the latter is indicated after the occurrence of pizzicato by coir arco (with the bow) or by arco (bow).
Plica (Lat.), Plique (Fr.). A mediaeval grace consisting of an ascending or descending appoggiatura It was indicated in the neumatic notation by a curve, in the square notation mostly by a second stem.
Poëme symphonique (Fr.). Symphonic poem. (v. Sym-
phonischc Dichtung.) oPoint. An obsolete English term signifying a subject of a fugue or
any kind of imitation. This subject may consist of two, three,
four, or any number of notes. Pointing. An obsolete English term synonymous with " fuguing." Portunal. A sweet-toned, clarinet-like open wood stop, the pipes
of which are larger at the top than at the bottom.
Prseambulum (Lat.), Préambule (Fr.). A preamble, an introduction.
Presa (It.). "A taking." The sign (this § or any other) which indicates in a canon the entrances of the several parts, the com-mencements of the answers. It is also called guida.
Quadruplet. A group of four notes that divides a bar or part of a bar into four equal portions.
Qliartole (Ger.). A quadruplet.
*Quinta (Lat.). v. Quintus.
Quintadena (Lat.). The same as Quintatbn (q.v.).
Quintuple time, f, |, &c. Read what has been said aoout this kind of time on p. 24, and add thereto that quintuple time may have also one accent only - namely, on the first member of th« bar.
QuintUS (Lat. ). Also called Quinta (fifth part or voice, pars or vox being understood) and Vagans (roving part). This latter name it received, because it might be either a second soprano, alto, tenor, or bass part.
Report. The answer of the subject in a fugue, canon, or other imi-tative form.
Res facta (Lat.). A written, in contradistinction to an improvised, composition.
Ridurre (It.). To reduce. Riduzione, reduction, (v. Reda*
ciren. )
Roller-board movement. A contrivance in that part of the organ mechanism that intervenes between the keys and the pallets. Its object is to convey sideways, where this is required, the motion of the trackers. Rollers are rods of varying length and thickness moving in studs projecting from the fixed roller-board. Near each of the two ends the rollers have an arm ; so that when a tracker draws down one of these arms, the other arm draws down another tracker.
Saltato (It.). Bounding, dancing, hopping.
Scharf (Ger.). A " sharp " mixture stop. (v. Mixture.)
Scherzino (It.). A short or light scherzo (?.».).
Schleppen (Ger.). To drag.
Septuple time. ì, J, &c, time. Read what is said about this kind of time on p. 24.
Seraphine. A successor of the Physharmonica, and predecessor of the Harmonium. This English instrument made its appearance in 1833 ; but, owing to the harshness of its tone, never became a favourite, and soon had to give way to improved free-reed instruments.
Sliders. A part of the organ mechanism. The same a> slida. (v. Organ.)
Società (It.). Society. Società corale, choral society.
Sommier (Fr.). Wind-chest.
Sonatilla (It.). A short or light sonata.
Spezzato (It.), v. Coro spezzato (in Appendix).
Siahlharmonica (Ger.). A "steel-harmonica." An instrument consisting of a series of steel bars placed on some kind of frame (box, lyre, &c), which are made to sound by means of one or two hammers. It is, in short, the instrument which goes by the name of carillon and Glocketispiel.
Stùrze in die Hbhe (Ger.). The bell turned upward. A direc-tion to horn players.
Suabe flute. A sweet organ stop.
*Tablature. Letters are, however, used in two different ways : in the organ tablature they mime and indicate the notes ; in the lute and viol tablatures they do not name the notes, and indicate only the places where the notes are to be found : thus a indicates the open string, b the first fret, c the second fret, and so on.

by the friction of a cylinder on metal bars. It was invented, in
1810, by Franz Leppich, of Vienna. Pantalonzug (Ger. ). A stop in the old clavecins, by which the
tone of the Pantaleon (q.v.) was imitated. Partheyen, Partien (Ger.). The same as Partita (q.v.). Partial tones. v. Harmonics.
Pavillon en l'air (Fr.). Wilh the bell turned upwards. A direc-tion to horn players.
Phorminx (Gk.). A stringed instrument of ancient Greece, a kind of lyre.
Pianista (It.). (1) A pianist. (2) A mechanical contrivance foi playing the piano. The machine is sel in motion by a handle, and the music is performed by means of perforated card-board.
Pin. Pins are to be found in the mechanism of various instruments— for instance, the pianoforte (q.v.).
Piuttosto, or Piu tosto (It.). Sooner, rather.
Pizzicato (It. )_ "Pinched." A direction to players on instruments of the violin family to produce the notes thus marked by pluck-ing the strings with the finger, instead of setting them in vibra-tion by means of the bow. The use of the latter is indicated after the occurrence of pizzicato by coir arco (with the bow) or by arco (bow).
Plica (Lat.), Plique (Fr.). A mediaeval grace consisting of an ascending or descending appoggiatura It was indicated in the neumatic notation by a curve, in the square notation mostly by a second stem.
Poëme symphonique (Fr.). Symphonic poem. (v. Sym-
phonischc Dichtung.) oPoint. An obsolete English term signifying a subject of a fugue or
any kind of imitation. This subject may consist of two, three,
four, or any number of notes. Pointing. An obsolete English term synonymous with " fuguing." Portunal. A sweet-toned, clarinet-like open wood stop, the pipes
of which are larger at the top than at the bottom.
Prseambulum (Lat.), Préambule (Fr.). A preamble, an introduction.
Presa (It.). "A taking." The sign (this § or any other) which indicates in a canon the entrances of the several parts, the com-mencements of the answers. It is also called guida.
Quadruplet. A group of four notes that divides a bar or part of a bar into four equal portions.
Qliartole (Ger.). A quadruplet.
*Quinta (Lat.). v. Quintus.
Quintadena (Lat.). The same as Quintatbn (q.v.).
Quintuple time, f, |, &c. Read what has been said aoout this kind of time on p. 24, and add thereto that quintuple time may have also one accent only - namely, on the first member of th« bar.
QuintUS (Lat. ). Also called Quinta (fifth part or voice, pars or vox being understood) and Vagans (roving part). This latter name it received, because it might be either a second soprano, alto, tenor, or bass part.
Report. The answer of the subject in a fugue, canon, or other imi-tative form.
Res facta (Lat.). A written, in contradistinction to an improvised, composition.
Ridurre (It.). To reduce. Riduzione, reduction, (v. Reda*
ciren. )
Roller-board movement. A contrivance in that part of the organ mechanism that intervenes between the keys and the pallets. Its object is to convey sideways, where this is required, the motion of the trackers. Rollers are rods of varying length and thickness moving in studs projecting from the fixed roller-board. Near each of the two ends the rollers have an arm ; so that when a tracker draws down one of these arms, the other arm draws down another tracker.
Saltato (It.). Bounding, dancing, hopping.
Scharf (Ger.). A " sharp " mixture stop. (v. Mixture.)
Scherzino (It.). A short or light scherzo (?.».).
Schleppen (Ger.). To drag.
Septuple time. ì, J, &c, time. Read what is said about this kind of time on p. 24.
Seraphine. A successor of the Physharmonica, and predecessor of the Harmonium. This English instrument made its appearance in 1833 ; but, owing to the harshness of its tone, never became a favourite, and soon had to give way to improved free-reed instruments.
Sliders. A part of the organ mechanism. The same a> slida. (v. Organ.)
Società (It.). Society. Società corale, choral society.
Sommier (Fr.). Wind-chest.
Sonatilla (It.). A short or light sonata.
Spezzato (It.), v. Coro spezzato (in Appendix).
Siahlharmonica (Ger.). A "steel-harmonica." An instrument consisting of a series of steel bars placed on some kind of frame (box, lyre, &c), which are made to sound by means of one or two hammers. It is, in short, the instrument which goes by the name of carillon and Glocketispiel.
Stùrze in die Hbhe (Ger.). The bell turned upward. A direc-tion to horn players.
Suabe flute. A sweet organ stop.
*Tablature. Letters are, however, used in two different ways : in the organ tablature they mime and indicate the notes ; in the lute and viol tablatures they do not name the notes, and indicate only the places where the notes are to be found : thus a indicates the open string, b the first fret, c the second fret, and so on.
Ternary form. A term not in common use. Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley calls thus a form which divides a piece into three portions, of which the first contains the exposition of some themes, the second some more themes in a related key, and the third modulating developments of previous themes and a coda, concluding, of course, in the principal key.
Tessitura (It.). Lit., "texture." The compass embraced by the notes most frequently used in a vocal composition. The tessitura does not include the highest and lowest notes which are but rarely and incidentally used.
Testudo (Lat.). Primarily "tortoise," then "tortoise-shell." A lyre ; cither; lute.
oTimbre (Fr.). (i) A bell without a clapper; also a bar of metal used for musical purposes, (v. Jeu, in Appendix.) (2) The cat-gut strings strung across the lower head of a side-drum ; the English equivalent is "snares." (3) The known airs to which authors of vaudevilles write the words of their songs are also called timbres.
Tirasse (Fr.). Pedals which draw down the bass keys of the
manual in organs without pedal stops. Tonarmm (Lat.). A pitch-pipe. Trattimenti (It.). Amusements, diversions.
Tremblailt (Fr.). An organ and harmonium stop. (v. Tremolo.)
Unbedeckt (Oer.). Uncovered, unmuffled. Said of drums.
'Ungarisch (Ger.). Hungarian. A Hungarian dance, or dance-tune in the Hungarian style. (». Csardas.)
Upper partials. v. Harmonics.
Venetian swell, v. Swell.
Ventilposaune (Ger.). A valve trombone.
VioloncellgTlitarre (Ger.). v. Guitare d'amour.
Waste-pallet. A valve in the organ bellows which allows super-fluous air to escape.
Wind-trunk, v. Organ.
Wrest-pins. v. Pianoforte.
Wrest-plank. That part of the pianoforte in which the wrest-pins
are fixed, (v. Pianoforte.) Zurückhaltend (Ger.l. Keeping back, ritenuto.


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