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-- A --



A. (I) The name of the sixth degree of the C major, the norma) major, scale ; and of the first degree of A minor, the normal minor, scale. (2) The note given by the oboe or organ to which the instruments of the orchestra are tuned.
A (It.). To, at, in, for, by, &c.—A piaceri, at pleasure; a tempo, in time.
A (Fr.). To, at, in, for, by, &c.—À première vue, at first sight;
à quatre mains, for four hands. A ballata (It.). In the ballad style.
A battuta (It.). In strict time. This term, which literally means "by the beat," is employed after a recitative, a cadenza, or any other interruption of the regular time of a movement.
Abbandonatamente, or con abbandono (It). With self-abandonment, unrestrainedly.
Abbassamento (It.). The act of lowering or the state of being lowered.—Abbassamento di mano, lowering of the hand in beat-ing time ; abassanento di voce, lowering of the voice.
Abbellimento (It.) Embellishment, ornament.
Abbellire (It.). To embellish, to ornament.
Abbellitura (It.). Embellishment, ornament.
Abbreviazioni (It.). Abbreviations. For a list of abbreviations
see Introduction, § XVI., pp. 58—62. A-b-C-diren (Ger.). To use in singing exercises the letter names of
the notes instead of the syllables do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, or any
other system of designating the notes. A bene placito (It.). At pleasure. Abgestossen (Ger.). Detached; staccato. Ab initio (Lat.). From the beginning ; da capo. Abkürzungen (Ger.). Abbreviations. Abrégés (Fi.). Trackers.
Absolute music. "Music," defines Sir F. A. (lore Ouseley, " which depends solely on itself for its effects, and is in no

64 ABSTOSSEN— ACCENTUS ECCLESIASTICI.

wise dependent on words, scenery, acting, or any other ex-traneous condition." Absolute {i.e., pure, unconnected, nothing but) music, the opposite of programme-music, is either a purely formal play with sounds or p.n unconscious reflection of some part of the dim regions of the emotions.
Ab9tossen (Ger.). To detach ; to play staccato.
Abstracten (Ger.). Trackers. Part of the mechanism of the organ which connects the keys with the pallets.
Abwechselnd (Ger.). Alternating.
Académie de Musique (Fr.). Academy of Music.
Académie Royale (or Nationale, or Impériale—according
to the Government of the day) de Musique (Fr.). The principal opera house in Paris. Generally called "l'Opéra." This institution was founded in the year 1669.
Académie Spirituelle (Fr.). A concert of sacred music.
Academy Of Music. (I) A society of musicians or amateurs for the cultivation of music. (2) A music school. (3) An operatic institution. (4) A concert institution. (5) A concert. (6) A building in which musical performances are held.
A capella (It.)- ». A cappella.
A Cappella (It.). (1) In the style of church music. (2) For voices without instrumental accompaniments. When in compositions in this style instruments are joined to the voices, they proceed with them in unisons and octaves. (3) Sometimes this term is synonymous with alia breve {a.v.).
A capriccio (It.). At will, according to the fancy of the performer.
Acatllistus (Lat.,from Gk.). A hymn of praise sung in the Greek Church in honour of the Blessed Virgin.
Accarezzevole (It.). I , . .
Accarezzevolmente (It.). | In a caressine> "»™.ating »*»>«.
Accelerando (It.). Accelerating the time.
Accent. (1) The regularly recurring stress on certain parts of a bar by which bars and their divisions are articulated. (2) The emphasis laid on certain notes with a view of articulating motives, phrases, periods, &c. (3) The modifications of tone that aim at bringing out the intellectual and emotional contents of a composition, [v. Introduction, §§X. and XI., pp. 21—27.)
Accent (Fr.). (1) Accent (i/.v.). (2) Either an appoggiatura or a Nachschlag. (v. Introduction, pp. 48 and 49.)
Accentua (Lat.). " Under the name Accentus were classed those portions of the Ritual Song [of the Roman Catholic Church] chanted or intoned by the officiating Priest, the Deacon, Sub-Deacon, or other Sacred Ministers at the altar ; in contradis-tinction to Concen/us, which refei.ed to all that should be sung by the Assistants or by a special trained Choir." (Rev. F. II. Haberl. ) See the next article.
Accentus ecclesiastici (Lat.). Ecclesiastical accents are melodic forms used in the Roman Catholic Church in chanting, or rather reciting, the collects, epistles, gospels, &c. These melodic
ACCIACCATURA—ACCORD.
65

inflections which vary the monotone recitation correspond with the comma, colon, semicolon, period, mark of interrogation, &c. See the preceding article. Acciaccatura (It.). (I) A short appoggiatura. (2) Formerly a short grace note lying beside and struck together with a longer principal note.
Accidentals. (1) Sharps, flats, or naturals that occur in the course of a piece, in contradistinction to those that are in the signature. (v. Introduction, § IV., pp. 6 and 7.) (2) This term has also been applied without exception to all signs for raising and lowering notes and revoking preceding signs—namely, both to those in the signature and those occurring in the course of a piece. The origin of all these signs are the *' round B " (B rolumlum) and "square B" (B quadra/urn), by which in the middle ages B flat was distinguished from B natural. By-and-by the two forms of the letter B became common signs of elevation and depression, being applied not only to B, bu,' also to other notes. The square B assumed various shapes, two of them like our sharp and natural; but r>o distinction was made between them till towards the end of the seventeenth century—a flat not only flattened a natural note, but also revoked a preceding sharp; a sharp not only sharpened a natural note, but also revoked a preceding flat (see a later instance in the Introduction, p. 49, m). Double sharps and flats did not come into use till about 1700. In earlier times, more especially before 1600, composers left it very much to the performers to find out what accidentals were required. For a long time, if there was any signature at all, it consisted of a flat only. Before the seventeenth century it was not customary to put more than one flat or one sharp in the signature. Even as late as the first half of the eighteenth century we meet with various anomalies. Bach, Handel, and their contemporaries, for instance, furnish examples of placing one flat and one sharp less in the signature than the key required, accidentals being used in the course of the piece instead of the sharp or flat in the signature. In short, our present system of using sharps, flats, and naturals, was not fixed till the second half of the eighteenth century.
Accidents (Fr.). Accidentals.
Accolade (Fr.). A brace which connects two or more staves, as in pianoforte, harp, organ, and harmonium music, and in vocal and full scores.
Accommodare (It.). To mend, repair, put in order. Accompagnamento (It.). Accompaniment. Accompagliato (It.). Accompanied, (v. Recitative.) Accompagnemerit (Fr.). Accompaniment. Accoppiato (It.). Coupled, joined.
Accord (Fr.). (1) A chord. (2) Agreement in pitch. (3) M-x!-of tuning an lT>«trnm*»nt,

64 ABSTOSSEN— ACCENTUS ECCLESIASTICI.

wise dependent on words, scenery, acting, or any other ex-traneous condition." Absolute {i.e., pure, unconnected, nothing but) music, the opposite of programme-music, is either a purely formal play with sounds or p.n unconscious reflection of some part of the dim regions of the emotions.
Ab9tossen (Ger.). To detach ; to play staccato.
Abstracten (Ger.). Trackers. Part of the mechanism of the organ which connects the keys with the pallets.
Abwechselnd (Ger.). Alternating.
Académie de Musique (Fr.). Academy of Music.
Académie Royale (or Nationale, or Impériale—according
to the Government of the day) de Musique (Fr.). The principal opera house in Paris. Generally called "l'Opéra." This institution was founded in the year 1669.
Académie Spirituelle (Fr.). A concert of sacred music.
Academy Of Music. (I) A society of musicians or amateurs for the cultivation of music. (2) A music school. (3) An operatic institution. (4) A concert institution. (5) A concert. (6) A building in which musical performances are held.
A capella (It.)- ». A cappella.
A Cappella (It.). (1) In the style of church music. (2) For voices without instrumental accompaniments. When in compositions in this style instruments are joined to the voices, they proceed with them in unisons and octaves. (3) Sometimes this term is synonymous with alia breve {a.v.).
A capriccio (It.). At will, according to the fancy of the performer.
Acatllistus (Lat.,from Gk.). A hymn of praise sung in the Greek Church in honour of the Blessed Virgin.
Accarezzevole (It.). I , . .
Accarezzevolmente (It.). | In a caressine> "»™.ating »*»>«.
Accelerando (It.). Accelerating the time.
Accent. (1) The regularly recurring stress on certain parts of a bar by which bars and their divisions are articulated. (2) The emphasis laid on certain notes with a view of articulating motives, phrases, periods, &c. (3) The modifications of tone that aim at bringing out the intellectual and emotional contents of a composition, [v. Introduction, §§X. and XI., pp. 21—27.)
Accent (Fr.). (1) Accent (i/.v.). (2) Either an appoggiatura or a Nachschlag. (v. Introduction, pp. 48 and 49.)
Accentua (Lat.). " Under the name Accentus were classed those portions of the Ritual Song [of the Roman Catholic Church] chanted or intoned by the officiating Priest, the Deacon, Sub-Deacon, or other Sacred Ministers at the altar ; in contradis-tinction to Concen/us, which refei.ed to all that should be sung by the Assistants or by a special trained Choir." (Rev. F. II. Haberl. ) See the next article.
Accentus ecclesiastici (Lat.). Ecclesiastical accents are melodic forms used in the Roman Catholic Church in chanting, or rather reciting, the collects, epistles, gospels, &c. These melodic
ACCIACCATURA—ACCORD.
65

inflections which vary the monotone recitation correspond with the comma, colon, semicolon, period, mark of interrogation, &c. See the preceding article. Acciaccatura (It.). (I) A short appoggiatura. (2) Formerly a short grace note lying beside and struck together with a longer principal note.
Accidentals. (1) Sharps, flats, or naturals that occur in the course of a piece, in contradistinction to those that are in the signature. (v. Introduction, § IV., pp. 6 and 7.) (2) This term has also been applied without exception to all signs for raising and lowering notes and revoking preceding signs—namely, both to those in the signature and those occurring in the course of a piece. The origin of all these signs are the *' round B " (B rolumlum) and "square B" (B quadra/urn), by which in the middle ages B flat was distinguished from B natural. By-and-by the two forms of the letter B became common signs of elevation and depression, being applied not only to B, bu,' also to other notes. The square B assumed various shapes, two of them like our sharp and natural; but r>o distinction was made between them till towards the end of the seventeenth century—a flat not only flattened a natural note, but also revoked a preceding sharp; a sharp not only sharpened a natural note, but also revoked a preceding flat (see a later instance in the Introduction, p. 49, m). Double sharps and flats did not come into use till about 1700. In earlier times, more especially before 1600, composers left it very much to the performers to find out what accidentals were required. For a long time, if there was any signature at all, it consisted of a flat only. Before the seventeenth century it was not customary to put more than one flat or one sharp in the signature. Even as late as the first half of the eighteenth century we meet with various anomalies. Bach, Handel, and their contemporaries, for instance, furnish examples of placing one flat and one sharp less in the signature than the key required, accidentals being used in the course of the piece instead of the sharp or flat in the signature. In short, our present system of using sharps, flats, and naturals, was not fixed till the second half of the eighteenth century.





Accidents (Fr.). Accidentals.
Accolade (Fr.). A brace which connects two or more staves, as in pianoforte, harp, organ, and harmonium music, and in vocal and full scores.
Accommodare (It.). To mend, repair, put in order. Accompagnamento (It.). Accompaniment. Accompagliato (It.). Accompanied, (v. Recitative.) Accompagnemerit (Fr.). Accompaniment. Accoppiato (It.). Coupled, joined.
Accord (Fr.). (1) A chord. (2) Agreement in pitch. (3) M-x!-of tuning an lT>«trnm*»nt,

66
ACCORDANDO—X DEUX QUATRE.

Accordando (It.). Tuning ; or being in tune, agreeing. Accordare (It.). To tune ; or to be in tune.
Accordatura (It.). Mode in which an instrument is tuned—the
violin, for instance, in fifths (g, d, a', e"). Accordeur (Fr.). A tuner.
Accordion. A portable musical instrument invented by Damian, of Vienna, in 1829, the sounds of which are produced by the vibration of metallic tongues (free reeds), set in motion by the wind as it is drawn in by expanding the small bellows, or forced out by compressing them. (v. Concertina.)
Accordo (It.). A chord.
Accordoir (Fr.). (1) A tuning-key or hammer. (2) A tuning-fork. Accresciuto (It.). Augmented.
Achtel (Ger.). A quaver. Lit., " an eighth."—Achtelnote, quaver note ; Achlelpause, quaver rest.
Acoustics. The science of sound; or, more explicitly defined, the science which treats of the nature, phenomena, and laws of sound. A few acoustical facts are mentioned in § II. of the Introduction. Consult also the articles Harmonics, Timbre, Resultant Tones, &c.
Act. The largest division of a play or opera. It is subdivided into scenes.
Acte de cadence (Fr.). The two chords that form a cadence.
Action. The mechanism of the pianoforte, organ, harmonium, &c. (keys, jacks, hammers, dampers, trackers, rollers, pallets, &c), by means of which the player acts upon the sound-generators (strings, pipes, reeds, &c).
Acuta (Lat.). A mixture stop in the organ.
Acute. High, in reference to pitch.
Acutus (Lat.). (1) Sharp, acute. (2) The name of one of the
accentus ecclesiastici. Adagietto (It.). (1) A short adagio. (2) A movement somewhat
less slow than adagio. Adagio (It.). Slow. This term indicates a movement quicker than
largo and slower than andante. It is also used substantively.
Adagio assai (It.). \ v , Adagio di molto (It.). J Very slow-
Adagissimo (It.). Extremely slow.
Addolorato (It.). Sorrowful, with an expression of grief. A demi jeu (Fr.). With half the power of the instrument. A demi voix (Fr.). With half the power of the voice (mezza voce).
A deux (Fr.). For two instruments or voices. This expression is
also used for a deux temps. A deux huit (Fr.). In \ time. A deux mains (Fr.). For two hands. A deux quatre (Fr.). In x time.
A DEUX TEMPS—AEUSSERE STIMMEN. 67

A deux temps (Fr.). In f time.
Adiaphonon. An instrument invented by Schuster, of Vienna, in 1819. It has a keyboard like the pianoforte, but instead of strings metal rods. One of its best qualities is that of always keeping in tune. In the latest development of this instrument, the Adiaphone, the hammers act on tuning-forks
Adirato (It.). Irritated ; in an angry manner.
Adjunct notes. Notes not essential to the harmony and occurring on unaccented parts of the bar.
Ad libitum (Lat.). At will. (1) This term implies that the time, and the rendering generally of a passage, is left to the judgment of the performer. (2) In titles and in scores the phrase is used to indicate that one or more parts may be performed or left out. (3) Cadenza ad libitum means either that the performer has to provide a cadenza himself, or that he may at his pleasure intro-duce one or not.
Adomamento (It). An ornament.
A due (It.). For, or divided between, two voices or instruments.
A due corde (It.). On two strings.''
Adufe (Sp.). Tambourine, timbrel. A dur (Ger.). A major.
.iEolian. (1) In the ancient Greek system, the name of the octave species abcdefga, also called Hypodorian, and of one of the transposition scales. (2) In the mediaeval ecclesiastical system
the names of the octave species a b c d e f g a, the ninth (fifth
authentic) mode. (v. Church Modes.) .^Eolian harp. A box in or on which are stretched strings. The
sounds of this instrument are produced by the action of the wind. ^Eolian piano, v. Aeolsklavier.
iEolodicon, or ^Eolodion. A keyboard wind instrument of the harmonium class.
o^Eolomelodicon, or Choraleon. This instrument, invented by Professor Hoffmann, and in 1825 constructed by the mechanician Brunner, of Warsaw, was a kind of small organ. Its tone was capable of modification as regards character as well as loudness.
^Eolopantalon. A combination of the ^Eolomelodicon with the pianoforte.
Aeolsklavier (Ger.). /Eolian piano. An obsolete keyboard wind
instrument, invented in 1S25 by Schortmann, of Buttelstedt.
It had reeds of wood instead of metal, by the vibration of which
a soft pleasing tone was produced. Aequal (Ger., from Lat.). This term signifies "of eight feet," and
is applied to organ stops. .5±jquisonus (Lat.). Unison.
^Esthetics. The philosophy of art, the theory of taste, the scienct
of the beautiful in art. Aeussere Stiinruen (Ger.). The extreme parts

H
AEUSSERST—À LIVRE OUVERT.

Aeusserst (Ger.). Extremely; as äusserst rasch, extremely quick. Aeuia. An abbreviation of the word " Alleluia," formed by the sup-pression of the consonants. Affabile (It.). In a pleasing, kindly manner. Afianato (It.). In a distressed, sorrowful manner. Affanosamente (It.). Anxiously, restlessly. Affanoso (It.). Anxious, restless.
Affetto (It.). Passion, affection, tenderness.—Con affetto, with emo-tional warmth ; with heartfelt, tender feeling ; with a passionate expression.
iSÄÄ" (It)" I With passionate and tender feenng. Afflitto, or con afflizione (It.). Sorrowfully. Affrettando (It.).} Hurrvine Affrettoso (It.). ) ilurryng-
Agevole, or con agevolezza (It.). Lightly, with ease.
Aggiustatamente (lt.). Strictly in time.
Aggraver la fugue (Fr.). To augment the subject in a fugue. Agüita (It.). Lightness, nimbleness.—Con agilità, with agility. Agilité (Fr.). Agility, nimbleness. Agilmente (It.). Nimbly. Agitamento (It.). Agitation, restlessness.
Agitatamente, or con agitazione (!'..)o With agitation, ex-citedly.
Agitato (It.). Agitated, restless.
Agitazione (It.). Agitation.—Con agitazione, with agitation. Agnus Dei (Lat.). "Lamb of God." One of the principal parts
of the mass. (v. Mass.) AgOge (Gk.). (i) "Conduct" of the melody, melodic motion. The
same as ductus (g.v.). (2) Rhythmicalagoge corresponds to what
we call tempo, movement Agréments (Fr.). Ornaments, graces, (p. Introduction, g XIV.) Aign (Fr.). Sharp, piercing, acute, high. Air (Fr.). Air, tune, melody, song, aria. Ais (Ger.). A sharp (A|¡). Ais dur (Ger.). A sharp m¡»jor. Ais moll (Ger.). A sharp minor. Akkord (Ger.). A chord. AI (It.). To the, at the, in the.
A la mesure (Fr.). In time. This phrase has the same meaning as a tempo or a battuta.
Alberti BaSS. A bass consisting of broken chords. It derives its name from Domenico Alberti, a talented dilettante, who first in-troduced or extensively used it in compositions for the cembalo. Alberti was born in Venice at the beginning of the eighteenth cen'.ury, and died at Formio about 1740.
Aliquot tones. Overtones, upper partials, harmonics.
A livre ouvert (Fr.). At sight.
All', alia (It.)- To the, at the, in the, in the style of. Alia breve (It.). This term denotes a quick kind of common time (f) in which the minims and not the crotchets are beaten. The
older church music an alia breve bar contained generally four or eight minims. Alia breve means literally "by the breve," and implies " count by the breve, not by the semibreve," or in other words, "make the breves as short as semibreves." The semibreves had of course, consequently, the ordinary length of minims, (v. Tactus. )
Alla caccia (It.). In the hunting style.
Alia camera (It.). In the style of chamber music.
Alla cappella (It.). The same as a casella.
Alla diritta (It.). Ascending or descending by degrees.
Alia hanacca (It.). In the style of a hanacca (q.v.).
Alla marcia (It.). In the style of a march.
Alla mente (It.). Extemporaneous, (v. Contrapunto alla mente.) Alla militare (It.). In the military style. Alla moderna (It.). In the modern style. All' antico (It.). In the ancient style.
Alia Palestrina (It.), (i) In the noble, chaste church style of Tales-trina. (2) For voices without instrumental accompaniment.
Alla polacca (It.). Like a polonaise.
Alla quinta (It.). At, or in, the fifth.
Alla scozzese (It.). In the Scotch style.
Alla siciliana (It.). In the of a Siciliano (q.v.).
Alla stretta (It.). In the manner of a stretto (q.v.).
Alla turca (It.). In the Turkish style.
Alla zingara (It.). In the style of gipsy music.
Alla zoppa (It.). In a limping, lame manner, (v. Zoppo.)
Allegramente (It.). Gaily, in a lively manner.
Allegretto (It.). Moderately lively, not so quick as allegro.
Allegrettino (It.), (i) A short allegretto. (2) A movement not so fast as allegretto.
Allegrezza (It.). Joyfulness.—Con allegrezza, joyfully.
Allegrissimo (It.). Very quick.
Allegro (It.). Quick, lively.—This term is used both as an adverb, to indicate the movement, and as a substantive, to designate a piece in allegro time.
Allegro agitato (It.). Quick and agitated.
Allegro assai (It.). Very quick.
AT agro con brio, or Allegro brioso (It.). Quick and spirited.
Allegro ___ fuOCO (It.). With animation and fire.
Allegro ___ moto (It.). An animated allegro.
Allegro di bravura (It.)- A brilliant allegro, a quick movement
full of executive difficulties. Allegro furioso (It.) Quick and impetuous.

70
ALLEGRO GIUSTO—AL SEGNO.

AllegTO giusto (It.). Quick and in strict time. (w. Giusto.)
AHegTO maestoso (It.). Quick but majestic.
Allegro ma non troppo (It.). Lively, but not too quick.
AllegTO moderato (It.). Moderately quick.
Allegro molto (It.). Very quick.
AllegTO risolutO (It.). Quick and with decision.
AllegTO vivace (It.>. Very quick and lively.
Alleluia (Lat.). Hailelujah. Praise ye the Lord.
Allemanda (It.). Allemande (g.v.).
Allemande (Fr.). (i) A German national dance still in vogue among the peasants of Bavaria, Suabia, Baden, and Northern Switzerland. It is generally in -J or f time (in some parts oí these countries, howe-'er, in \), and of a quiet, contentedly cheerful character. The French allemande is an imitation of the German dance. (2) A serious and elaborate piece of music in _J time to be met with in the suites and partite of Bacb, Handel, and other composers.
AllentamentO (It.)- A slackening in time.
Allentando (It-). Abating the speed.
Allen tato (It.). Slackened, slackening.
AIT improvista (It.). Extemporaneously.
Allmáblig (Ger.). Gradually, by easy and slow steps.
Al loco (It.). Lit., "at the place." This term is used to inform the performer, after he has been playing an octave higher or lower, that the notes have to be played in the usual and proper place.
A13' ottava (It.). At the octave. (1) A direction to play an octave higher or lower In the former case the words are placed above the note or notes ; in the latter case below them. The word bassa (" low "—at the low octave) is sometimes added. Instead of alt ottava the abbreviations alF 8va and Sva are often used. (2) This expression is also used in scores to indicate that one instrument has to play with another in octaves.
All' unisono (It.). In unison or at the unison.
Almand. Allemande (i¡.v.).
Alpenhorn, or Alphorn (Ger.). Alpine horn. A primitive wind instrument, consisting of a wooden tube from three to eight feet long. It is in use among the Swiss herdsmen. Only notes from the natural harmonic series can be produced on this instrument.
Al piacere (It.). At pleasure.
Al rigore di tempo (It.). In strict time.
Alliverso and Al rovescio (It.). (I) By contrary motion. (2) By retrograde motion, (v. Rovescio.)
Al segno (It.). To or at the sign. A more common expression signi-fying the same thing is dal segno (from the sign). The performer on meeting this expression has to go back to where the sign (§01 SS or *) is marked, and thence repeat what he has played or
ALT—ALTO CLEF.
7'
sung till he comes to the word fine or a double bar with a pause above it | _ One of the above signs takes also often the
place of the words al segno, (v. Dal segno.) Alt, (Ger.). AJto voice or part. Alta (It.). High.—Ottava alta, an octave higher. Altclarinette (Ger.). Alto clarinet. A clarinet which is a fifth
lower in pitch than the ordinary B flat or C clarinet, standing in
E flat or in F.





Alteratio (Lat.). In the old mensurable music the doubling of the
value of a note under certain conditions. Alteration (Ger.), Alteration (Fr.). (i) The same meaning as
alteratio. (2) Alteration of the pitch of a note by raising or
lowering it a semitone. Alterato (It.), AlttSre (Fr.). Altered in pitch, raised or lowered
a semitone. Alternamente (It.). Alternatively. Altemando (It.). Alternating.
Altemativo (It.), (i) Alternate. (2) Apart of a composition tn
be performed alternately with another. Altgeige (Ger.). The tenor violin, the viola. Altl naturali (It.)- " Natural altos." (r. Alto.) Altissimo (It.). The highest. Extremely high. (v. In altissimo.) Altista (It.). An alto singer.
Alto, m., Alta, f. (It.). High ; loud. (v. In alto.)
Alto (It.). (1) One of the four chief classes of the human voice; the deeper of the two classes of the female voice, which in England is more commonly called contralto. There are to be distinguished three different kinds of alto voices : those of women, boys, and men. Among the latter are again to be distinguished those of the castrati and of the alti naturali, tenon acuti, or falsetti. The last-mentioned male altos, in England also called counter-tenors, make use of a developed falsetto (head-voice). The English music written for this kind of voice demands a compass from g to c". The alti naturali, who till the introduction of the castrati sang in the churches of Italy and elsewhere the soprano and alto parts, are said to have sung up to a". For the compass of the female alto see Contralto. (2) Alto is also one of the names of the stringed instrument which is a little larger and a fifth lower in pitch than an ordinary violin. Viola, Tenor, and Bratsche are synonyms.
Alto basso (It.). A primitive instrument formerly in use in Northern Italy, consisting of a wooden box, over which were stretched a few gut strings, which the performer struck with a stick held in his left hand while he played on a flageolet held in his right hand.
Alto clef. The C clef on the third line, which makes the note on that line c1. It is used for the alto voice, viola, &c.

71
ALT POSAU N E—AN A KR U SIS.

Altposaune (Ger.). Alto tromlione. Altra(It) Other. AJtre, altri (It.). Others. AJtro (It.). Other. Altschliissel (Ger.). Alto clef. Altviole (Ger.). Viola. Altzeichen (Ger.). Alto clef.
Alzamento (It). A raising.—Alzamcnto Ji mano, raising of the hand.
Amabile (It.). Sweetly, amiably.
Amarevole (It.). Sad, bitter. This word is often rendered " lovingly," and then has to be regarded as a corruption of the wort! oirnorevoU.
Amarezza (It.). Bitterness, sadness.—Con amarfza, with sadness. Amateur (Fr.). A lover of music who does not pursue the art
professionally. Ambitus (Lat.). Compass.
Ambrosian Chant. The most ancient form of church-song, introduced by St. Ambrose (Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397), but concerning which nothing definite is known.
Ambrosian Hymn. The "Te Deum laudamus," the authorship of which had once been erroneously attributed to St. Ambrose. Who the author of it really was is a question that has not yel been decided, nor can it ever be decided.
Ame (Fr.). The sound-post of the violin and other stringed instru-ments of that class
American organ. This keyboard wind instrument is a variety of the harmonium, from which it differs, as regards construction, by the curvature and the greater smallness of the reeds, and by the action of the bellows, which do not drive but draw (suck) the wind through the apertures against which the reeds are placed.
A mezza voce (It.). With half the power of the voice. This expression is applied also 10 the tone of instruments.
A moll (Ger.). A minor.
Amore (It.). Love, affection.—Con at/tore, with tenderness, with devotion.
iS=!m(enL(It,.f Tender,, lovingly, affably.
A^oTsoTf6 (It')- ! Amorously, lovingly, with affection. Amphibrach. A metrical foot composed of three syllables, the
middle one long, the first and last short : — — — Amphimacer. A metrical foot composed of three syllables,
the middle one short, the first and last long : — — — Amusement (Fr.). A composition in an easy, pleasing style. Anacrouse (Fr.). v. Anakrusis.
A.nakrusis (Ger., from Gk.). The unaccented note or notes which precede the first accented note of a phrase ; the note or note3 _"_k'ch precede the initial ictus (o.v.) of a rhythm.
ANAPEST—ANNONER.
73
Anapest. A metrical foot consisting of two short syllables followed
by a long one : — — — Anche (Fr.). The reed or mouthpiece of an oboe, bassoon, &c.
also the reeds in the organ, harmonium, &c. Anche (It.). Also, still, likewise. Ancia (It.). The same as the French anche, a reed. Ancora (It.). Again, also, yet.
Andacht (Ger.). Devoutness.—Mit Andacht, devoutly. Andachtig (Ger.). Devoutly.
Andamento (It.). (I) Movement ; as andamento rafido, a quick movement. (2) A long subject of a fugue.
Andante (It.). This term, which means literally " walking," implies a somewhat slow movemenl.
Andante afi'ettuOSO (It.). Slow and with tender feeling.
Andante cantabüe (It.). Slow and in a singing style.
Andante maestoso (It.). Slow and majestic.
Andantino (It.). This is the diminutive of andante. Opinions dilier as to whether the movement is quicker or slower than andante. Italian lexicographers and linguists and the majority of musicians say andantino indicates a quicker movement than andante. We have to remember that composers difier as much on this point as theorists.
Anemochord, or Animo-corde. A keyboard wind instrument which had strings instead of pipes or reeds. Its inventor was Johann Jacob Schnell, a German, who in 1777 settled in Paris, and after four years' labour completed in 1789 this development of the ^Eolian harp.
Anfang (Ger.). Beginning.
Angelica (Lat.). Angelic.— Vox angelica, an organ stop. Angélique (Fr.). An obsolete instrument of the lute class. Angemessen (Ger.). Appropriate, suitable.
Anglaise (Fr.). (I) The name formerly given to three English dances : the Country dance, the Ballad, and the Hornpipe. (2) A. lively French dance in \ time.
AngOSciosamente (It.). ( With an expression of suffering and
AngOSCiosO (It.). ( anguish.
Anhaltende Cadenz (Ger.). A pedal-point. The exprès.ion is
obsolete. Anhang (Get.). Codais.).
Anima (It.). Soul, spirit, life. — Con anima, with animation, with spirit.
Animate °in °' I With spirit and animatioa-
Animo-corde Anemochord (a.v.).
Animoso (It.). Eager, spirited.
Anmuth (Ger.) Grace, sweetness.
Anonner (Fr.). To stammer, to play in a stumbling, hesitating
way.

74
ANSATZ—APFELREGAL.

Ansatz (Ger.). Mode of producing the tone of a wind instrument. Anschlag (Ger.). Touch. Mode of striking the keys of any key-board instrument, more especially the pianoforte. Anschwellen (Ger.). To increase in loudness. Anstillimen (Ger.). To intone. Anteludium (Lat.). Prelude, introduction.
Anthem. A vocal composition in the sacred style, set to words generally taken from the Bible. There are anthems with and without accompaniment. The forms in which this kind of com-position presents itself are very varied. " There are five species of anthems," says Dr. Busby : " (i) The Verse and Chorus anthem, consisting of verse and chorus, but beginning in verse ; (2) the Verse anthem, containing verse and chorus, but beginning in verse ; (3) the Full anthem, consisting wholly of chorus; (4) the Solo anthem, consisting of solos and choruses, but without verse ; and (5) the Instrumental anthem." Verses are those portions of an anthem that are meant to be performed by a single voice to each part.
Anthologie (Fr. and Ger.). Anthology, a collection of choice compositions. Lit., " a gathering of flowers."
Anthologium (Lat.). The name of a book in which are collected the hymns, prayers, and lections of the Greek Church.
Anthropogflossa (Gk.). The vox humana stop in the organ.
Anticipation. The introduction of a note previous to the entrance of the harmony to which it belongs The anticipations are indicated in the illustrations by *.


Antiphon. A short sentence from the Bible sung before or after the Psalms in the Roman Catholic Church.—Antiphonal singing is alternate singing between two choirs.
AntiphoSariu^r(Lat.) I Antiphonary.
Antiphonary. The service-book which contains all the chants of the Divine Office [i.e., of the Canonical Hours), as the Graduale contains those of the Mass.
Antistrophe. v. Strophe.
Antithesis. A contrasting thought; a countersubject in a fugue. Antwort (Ger.). Answer, (v. Fugue.)
Apertus (Lat.). Open. A term applied to organ pipes that are open at the top, to distinguish them from stopped pipes.
Apfelregal (Ger.). An obsolete reed-stop in the organ, usually of 4-feet pitch, sometimes of 8 feet.
A PIACERE—ARDENTE.
75

A piacere (It.). 1 At the pleasure of the performer.
A piacimento (It.). ) v v
A poco a poco (It.). By degrees ; little by little.
Apollo, or Apollon. An instrument of the lute class, with twenty strings, invented in 1678 by Prompt, a musician of Paris.
Apollonicon. A combination of an organ and gigantic orchestrion. The instrument, which had 1,900 pipes, five manuals, a pedal keyboard, and three barrels, was in 1817 and for a quartei of a century afterwards exhibited by the organ-builders Messrs Flight and Robson.
Apotome (Gk.). The major semitone of the Greeks, the greatei half of a tone. [v. Limma.)
Appassionato (It.). With passion and strong emotion.—Appas-sionata is the feminine form of the word.
Appassionamento (It.). Passion, ardour.
Appassionatamente (It.). Passionately, ardently.
Appell (Ger.). A bugle call. The same as Antreten, " to fall in."
Appenato (It.). Distressed, in a sorrowful manner.
Applicatur (Ger.). Way of fingering on a musical instrument.
Appoggiando (It.). ) Leaning and leaned against. These terms
Apoggiato (It.). j are applied to notes which are connected with others—to syncopations and suspensions—and are als<? synonymous with col portamento di voce. (v. Portamento.)
Appoggiatura (It.). A leaning. A note leaning against anothei A grace-note. {v. Introduction, § XIV., pp. 39—41.)
Apprestare (It.). \ T t _ ord make fi fo
Appretiren (Ger.). ) r '
À première vue (FT.). 1 At si ht
A prima vista (It.). / b
A punta d'arco (It.). With the point of the bow.
A punto (It.). Exact, in accurate time.
A quatre mains (Fr.). ) For four hands. Expressions used in A quattro mani (It.), i speaking of pianoforte and organ duets. À quatre voix (Fr.). 7 For four ^ A quattro voci (It.). )
Arbitrio (It.). Free-will, power.—A suo arbitrio, at one's pleasure.
This expression is identical with a piacere and ad libitum. Arcato (It.). Bowed. Played with the bow.
Archet (Fr.). The bow with which instruments of the violin clas-
are played. Archilute (Fr.). Archlute. Archlute. v. Lute and Theorbo.
Arcicembalo (It.). An instrument invented by Don Nicolo Vicen-tino in the sixteenth century, on which it was possible to play in all the genera—the diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic.
Arciliuto (It.). Archlute.
Arco (It.). The bow.
Ardente (It.). With fire and ardour.

/6
ARDITO—ARPEGGIARE.
Ardito (It.)- With spirit and boldness.
Aretinian Syllables. The names Ut, Rt, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, given to the notes of the Hexachord by Guido d'Arezzo. These syllables occur in a hymn to St. John, ar —-ere coincide with the six notes they now designate.
Aria (U.). An air; a song ; a vocal composition for a single voice with instrumental accompaniment. The aria such as we find it in the opera, oratorio, cantata, &c, in the structure of which it forms one of the most important elements, was developed in the seventeenth century. Of the varieties of the aria-form none is historically more noteworthy than the aria with da capo—that is, a composition consisting of a more or less extended first part, x shorter second part, and a repetition of the first part. Kor a long period it was the prevalent type. Most of the other varieties of the aria-form sprang out of this one. For instance, that in which a free, modified repetition took the place of the da capo ; or that in which the repetition was altogether dis pensed with ; or that in which the cemre of gravity was to be found in the second part ; and so forth. Arias, however, have often been written in the rondo-form, and also in what we may call the abridged sonata-form. Since Mozart the great masters have departed more and more from the conventional pattern, and have taken for their guides as regards form as well as senti-ment the character and mood of the person for whom, and the nature of the situation for which, the aria is intended.
Aria concertante (It.). An aria with obbligato instrumental accompaniment—i.e., an aria in which one or more instruments vie with the voice.
Aria di bravura (It.). An aria florid in style and with rapid brilliant passages.
Aria parlante (It.). A declamatory aria. (v. Parlante.)
Arietta (It-). A short aria.
Ariette (Fr.). Although the word signifies "a short aria," the French gave this name to a long vocal composition, generally of an animated character.
Arioso (It.). In the style of an air ; melodious.
Armer la clef (Fr.). To indicate the key by means of the signature.
Armonia (It.). Harmony.
Armonica (It.). (I) Harmonic. (2) Harmonica (q.v.). Armoniosamente (It.). Harmoniously. ArmonioSO (It.). Harmonious. Arpa (It). A harp.
Arpa doppia (It.). A double harp. \v. Spitzharfe.) Arpanetta, or Arpanella (It.). A small harp. (v. Spitzharfe.) Arpège (Fr.). Arpeggio.
Arpeggiando (It.). Playing the notes of a chord in succession. (v. Arpeggio.)
Arpeggiare (It.). To play the notes of a chord in succession. (v. Arpeggio.)
ARPEGGIATO—A TRE.
77
ArpeggiatO (It.). Playert harp-like—i.e., the notes of a chord are to be played successively.
Arpeggio (It.). A term applied to the notes of a chord when they are struck one after the other instead of together. A broken chord. The word is derived from arpa (harp), and its literal meaning is "harping," or "harp-like playing." A succession of broken chords is called an arpeggiatura.
Arpicordo (It.). A harpsichord.
Arranger (Fr.). ) To arrange or adapt music for other in-Arrangiren (Ger.). ) struments or voices than those for which i:
was originally written. Arsis (Gk.). The upbeat in beating time ; the unaccented pan of a
bar.
Art (Ger.). Species, kind, mode.
Articolare (It.). To articulate, to pronounce distinctly. Articolato (It.). Articulated, distinctly pronounced. Articolazione (It.). Articulation, distinct pronunciation.
i^ticutoen (Ger.). } To a"'culale-to
As (Ger.). The note A flat.
Asas (Ger.). A double flat.
As dur (Ger.). A flat major.
Ases (Ger.). The same as Asas.
As moll (Ger.). A flat minor.
Aspirare (It.). To aspirate ; to breathe audibly.
Asprezza (It.). Harshness, roughness.
Assai (It.). Very.—Largo assai, very slow.
Assez (Fr.). Enough, rather.—Asset lent, rather slow.
Assoluto (It.). Absolute, free.
iZSffi | AsSOnanCe' semblance of sound.
A SUO arbitrio (It). ) At the will, at the pleasure, of the
A SUO bene placitO (It.). ( performer. The same as ad libitum. A SUO COmmodo (It.). According to the convenience of the per-former.
A tempo (It.). In time. This expression occurs after a change in the time, and denotes that the first or original time must be resumed.
A tempo COmmodo (It.). In a moderate, convenient time.
A tempo di gavotta (It.). In the time of a gavotte (c/.v.).
A tempo di minuetto (It.). In the time of a minuet (q.v.).
A tempo giusto (It.). In strict, accurate time.
A tempo ordinario (It). In ordinary time. (v. Tempo ordinario.)
A tempo primo (It.). A return to the first time.
A tempo rubato (It.). In irregular time. Literally, "robbed
time." Acceleration and retardation of parts r.f a bar. (t>.
Tempo rubato. I Athem (tier.). Breath. A tre (It.). For three voices or instruments.

78
A TRE MANI—AUMENTANDO.
A tre mani (It.). For three hands.
A tre parti (It.). In three parts.
A tre VOCi (It.). For three voices.
A trois (Fr.). For three voices or instruments.
A trois mains (Fr.). For three hands.
A trois parties (Fr.). In three parts.
A trois voix (Fr.). For three voices.
Attacca (It.). Attack, begin the next part immediately
Attacca subito (It.). Attack immediately, (v. Attacca.)
AttequeHFri: I T° attack>to beein at once"
Attacco (It.). A short subject of a fugue. It consists of no more than a few notes, a motive, and is not restricted by all the laws of a regular fugue.
Attendant keys. Relative keys (s.v.).
Atto (It.) An act of an opera or play.
Attore (It.). Actor. > . .
Attrice (It.). Actress. \ A SInSer ln an °Pera-
Aubade (Fr.). Morning music. Compare with sMnadt.
Audace (It.). Bold, audacious.
Auffassung (Ger.). Conception, reading of a work.
Aufführung (Ger.). Performance.
Aufgeregt (Ger.). Excited, agitated.
Aufgeweckt (Ger.). Brisk, lively.
Aufhält (Ger.). Suspension.
Aufhalten (Ger.). To retard, to keep back, to suspend.
Aufhaltung (Ger.). Suspension, retardation.
Auflage (Ger.). Edition.
Auflösung (Ger.). Resolution of a discord.
Aufschlag (Ger.). An upbeat, an unaccented beat.
Aufstrich (Ger.). An upbow in violin, violoncello, &c, playing.
Auftakt (Ger.). The unaccented part of a bar ; especially the commencement of a piece, or division of a piece, when it does not open with a note on the first accented part of the bar, but on a later unaccented one.
Auftritt (Ger.). A scene.
Aufzug (Ger.). Act of a play or opera.
Augmentation. An imitation by augmentation introduces a theme or subject in notes of greater length than those in which it was first proposed.
Augmented intervals. Intervals one semitone greater than major or perfect intervals, (v. Introduction, § VII., pp. 12 and 13.)
Auletes (Gk.). A flute-player. Aulos(Gk.). A flute.
Aulozonum (Gk.). The tuning-wire of organ reeds. Aumentando (It.). Augmenting, increasing. Sometimes used instead of crescendo
AUMENTATO—BAGATELLE.
79

Aumentato, m., Aumentata, f. (It.). Augmented.
A Una COrda (It.). On one string. In pianoforte music, a direc-tion to use the soft pedal.
Ausdruck (Ger.). Expression.—Mit innigem Ausdruck, with heartfelt expression.
Ausdrucksvoll (Ger.). In an expressive manner.
Ausführung1 (Ger.). Performance, execution.
Aushaltung (Ger.). Sustaining a note.
Aushaltungszeichen (Ger.). A pause : i*
Ausweichung (Ger.). Modulation, change of key.
Authentic cadence. The cadence in which the chord of the tonic is preceded by the chord of the dominant.
Authentic modes. Authentic are called those ecclesiastical modes or tones (scales) which are composed of a fifth and a
fourth (for instance, d efg abed), and have their final on the first degree of the scale. The Plagal modes, which were con-structed on the authentic modes, are composed of a fourth
and a fifth (for instance, a b c d e f g a), and have their final on the fourth degree of the scale. Authentic part Of the Scale. That part which extends from the tonic to the dominant. The expression is used in Counter-point and Fugue.
Auxiliary notes. Notes not belonging to the harmony which lie either immediately above or below an essential note. They differ from passing notes in that they do not proceed by degrees from one essential note to another.
Ave Maria (Lat.). Hail, Mary ! A hymn of the Roman Catholic Church.
Ave maris Stella (Lat.). Hail, star of the sea! A Roman Catholic hymn.
Avec (Fr.). With.—Avec accompagnement, with accompaniment A vista (It.). At sight, (v. A prima vista.) A Voce sola (lt.). For one voice alone. Azione sacra (It.). A sacred drama.


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