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-- T --



Taballo (It.). The same as Timballo {q.v.%
Tablature. (I) Musical notation generally. (2) A score, especially a score of a vocal work made for the use of an instrumental per-former. (3) Further and more particularly, the name of several kinds of musical notation now for about two centuries obsolete. There were various kinds of organ, lute, &c., tablatures. They may be divided into two classes : those in which the pitch of notes was indicated by letters, and those in which it was indi-cated by numbers. The signs which indicated the duration of the notes and rests were common to both classes. (For some of the signs seep. 56 of the Introduction.) This definition takes into account only the most important systems and their general features. During the last two centuries various new systems of notation, consisting of letters, numbers, and other signs, have come into existence, but, although tablatures liice the above-mentioned notations, they are not generally so called. Of those at present in use may be mentioned the Tonic Sol-fa notation and Cheve-Galin's numeral system. The Figured Bass (q. v.) was formerly known by the name of " Italian Tablature." See also Tabulatur.*
Table d'harmonie (Fr.). A sound-board.
Tabor. A small drum. Taboret. A small tabor. Tabret. A small tabor.
Tabulatur (Ger.). Tablature (q.v.). Tabulatur was also the
name of the rules of the art of the Meistersinger (q. v.). Tabulatura (It.). Tablature.
Tace (It.), Tacet (Lat.). "Is silent." These words indicate that a part (instrument or voice) is unemployed in a movement or piece.
Tacent (Lat.). "Are silent." {v. Tace.)
Taci(It.). Be silent.
Tact (Ger.). The same as Takt.
TactuS (Lat.). Lit., "touch." (1) In mediaeval music, the time-measure obtained by a moderate downward and upward move-ment of the hand. The /actus corresponded to zsemibrevis. (2) In modern music, beat, measure.
Tafelmusik (Ger.). "Table-music" Music sung or played at meal-time.
Taille (Fr.). (1) The tenor voice or a tenor singer. (2) A member
of the viol family, a viola Tail-piece. That part of the instruments of the violin class to which
the lower ends of the strincs <we fastened.
TAKT—TANGENTENFLUGEL.
»35
Takt (Ger.). Measure, both in the sense of (i) time and of (2) a bar
—i.e., the portion of music between two bar-lines. Taktaccent (Ger.). Bar accent. Taktart (Ger.). Species of time. Taktfest (Ger.). Steady in keeping time. Taktglied (Ger.). Member of a bar. Takthalten (Ger.). To keep time. Taktiren (Ger.). To beat time. Taktmässig (Ger.). In time. Taktmesser (Ger.). A metronome. Taktnote (Ger.). A semibreve. Taktpause (Ger.). A bar rest. Taktschlagen (Ger.). To beat time.
Taktstock (Ger.). A conducting-stick, a stick for beating time. Taktstrich (Ger.). A bar-line.
Takttheil (Ger.). Part of a bar.—Guter Takttheil, accented part
of a bar ; schlechter Takttheil, unaccented part of a bar. Talon (Fr.). "Heel." The nut of the bow.
Tambour (Fr.). (1) A drum. (2) A drummer. Tambour de basque, a tambourine; tambour roulant, a side-drum of greater length than the ordinary side-drum, but of the same diameter.
Tamboura. An ancient instrument of the guitar kind, still in use among many eastern nations.
Tambourm (Fr.). (1) A light drum longer and narrower than the ordinary side-drum. It is suspended from the left arm of the performer who plays at the same time on the galoubet, a fife. (2) A lively French dance in -J time, which was either accom-panied with the tambourin and galoubet, or by music imitative of these instruments.
Tambourine. A timbrel. An instrument consisting of a wooden hoop, over which is stretched a piece of parchment, and in which are holes with jingles (small pieces of metal) inserted. The jingles are made to sound by shaking the instrument, and the stretched parchment is struck with the right hand.
Tambourineur (Fr.). A tambourine player.
Tambura. v. Tamboura.
Tamburello (It.). Atabor.
Tamburino (It.). (1) A drummer. (2) A tambourine. Tamburo (It.). A side-drum.
Tamburone (It.). The big, or bass, drum. Also called cassa
grantle.
Tam-tam. A gong. A metal instrument of percussion of Indian
origin.
Tändelnd (Ger.). In a playful, toying manner. Tangenten (Ger.). Tangents (?.».).
Tangentenüügel (Ger.). A "wing-shaped" keyboard stringed instrument with tangents.


236
TANGENTS—TEMPERAMENT.

Tangents. Metal pins; that part of the action of a clavichord which strikes against the strings. The word is derived from the Latin tangere, to touch, strike. In the pianoforte, hammers take the place of tangents, (v. Clavichord.)
Tantino (It.). A little.
Tanto (It.). So much, as much. Allegro non tanto, not too quick. Tanz (Ger.). A dance.
Tarantella (It.). A very lively Neapolitan dance. The modern Tarantella is in -f, the old Tarantella was in \ or \ time. The latter dance was thoughtto be a remedy against tarantism, a disease the cause of which was ascribed to the bite of the tarantula.
Tardamente (It.). Slowly, lingering.
Tardando, Tardato (It.). Retarding, lingering, slackening the time.
Tardo (It.). Slow, lingering.
Tartinfs tones. Difference tones, {v. Resultant tones.)
Taschengeige (Ger.). A pocket-fiddle; a small three-stringed violin.
Tastatur (Ger.). A keyboard.
Tastatura (It.). A finger-board ; a keyboard.
Taste (Ger.). A key.
Tastiera (It.). A keyboard.
Tasto (It.). A key of a pianoforte, organ, harmonium, or similai instrument.
Tasto solo (It.). "One key alone." This expression occurs in
figured bass, and directs the performer to play simply the bass
notes without adding chords. Tattoo. The beat of drum at night which warns soldiers that it is
time to repair to their quarters. Teclinik (Ger.). Technics. Those matters that pertain to the
practice of an art or science Tedesco, m., Tedesca, f. (It.). German.—Alia tedesca, in the
German style.
Te Deum (Lat.). A hymn of thanksgiving ; the so-called Ambro-
sian hymn (q.v.). Tenia (It.). A theme, or subject.
Temperament. This term has been defined as " the division ol the octave into a number of intervals such, that the notes which separate them may be suitable in number and arrangement for the purposes of practical harmony." To obtain such a division it is necessary to modify the natural, acoustical proportions of the intervals. The system now prevailing, according to which all our keyboard instruments are tuned, is that of equal temperament. It divides the octave into twelve equal semitones. The old systems of unequal, or mean-tone, temperament—the nature of which is indicated by the names—are in part more, in part less, satisfactory than the equal temperament. For if some intervals or some keys came nearer to just intonation, other intervals or other keys were so much the farther removed from it.
TEMPÉRAMENT—TEMPS FORT.
237

Tempérament (Fr.), Temperamento (It.), Temperatur
(Ger. ). Temperament. Tempestosamento (It.). Tempestuously, impetuously, passion-ately.
TempestoSO (It. ). Tempestuous, impetuous, passionate. Tempête (Fr.). Lit., "storm." A dance in -ç time. Tempo (It.). Time, part of a bar, movement.—A tempo, in time.
Tempo alia breve (It.). \ or -J time, the notes being only of
half their usual duration, (v. Alia breve.) Tempo alia semibreve (It.). The same as tempo ordinario. Tempobezeichnung (Ger.). Indication ai tempo (movement). Tempo binario (It. ). Binary time.
Tempo COmmodO, or comodo (It.). Commodious, convenient time.
Tempo debole (It.). Unaccented part of a bar. Tempo di Ballo (It.). In dance time. Tempo di Bolero (It.). In the time of a Bolero. Tempo di Gavotta (It.). In the time of a gavot. Tempo di Marcia (It.). In the time of a march. Tempo di Menuetto (It.). In the time of a minuet. Tempo di Polacca (It.). In the time of a polonaise. Tempo di Sarabanda (It.). In the time of a sarabande. Tempo di prima parte (It.). In the time of the first part. Tempo forte (It.). Accented part of a bar.
Tempo giusto (It.). Just, appropriate time. This expression indicates generally a moderate movement.
Tempo maggiore (It.). The same as tempo alia breve.
Tempo minore (It.). The same as tempo ordinario.
Tempo ordinario (It.). (1) Also called tempo minore and tempo alia semibreve. \ time, the notes having their proper duration, not as in the tempo maggiore (alia breve) only half their usual duration, (v. Alia breve.) (2) Tempo ordinario is likewise used in the sense of tempo primo.
Tempo primo, or primiero (It. ). First time.
Tempo rubato (It.). Lit., "robbed time." ( 1) The lengthening of one or several notes at the cost of one or several other notes. The retardation or acceleration of a part of a bar, or of a number of bars. In short, tempo rubato implies a freer rhythmical treat-ment, a departure from strict time measurement. (2) Time with displaced accents, so that either an altogether different kind of time is produced (for instance, \ instead of -j) or accented and unaccented parts of the bar exchange places.
Tempo temano (It.). Ternary time.
Tempo wie vorher (Ger. ). The time as before.
Temps (Fr.). Measure, part of a bar.
Temps faible (Fr.). Unaccented part of a bar
Temps fort (Fr. ). Accented part of a bar.


»38
TEMPUS—TERNAIRE.

TempUB (Lat.). Time, measure.—In the old mensurable music, tempus was the time value of a brevis, which in the tempus per-fectum is equal to three semibreves and in the tempus imperfti-turn to two.
Tempus binarhim (Lat.). Binary time.
Tempus imperfectum and perfectum (Lat.). r. Tempus.
Tempus ternarium (Lat.). Ternary time. Tendrement (Fr.). Tenderly. Tenera (It.), v. Tenero. Teneramente (It.). Tenderly.
Tenerezza (It.). Tenderness. — Con tenerezza, with tender-ness.
Tenero, m., Tenera, f. (It.). Tender, soft, delicate.
Tenor. The highest kind of male voice (leaving out of account fal-setti and castrati), or the possessor of such a voice. Its com-pass extends from c to a', and sometimes reaches up to b'$, and c". One distinguishes especially two species of tenor voice: the tenore robusto, which is full and powerful, and the tenore leggiero, which is light and sweet. (2) One of the names of the viola (q.v.). (3) Adjectively the word is applied to that member of families of instruments which occupies in those latter a place like the one which the tenor occupies among human voices.
Tenor C. The small C (c). (v. Introduction, p. 5.)
Tenor clef. The C clef on the fourth line. {v. Introduction, § III.,
Tenore (It.). A tenor voice, part, or singer. Tenore buffo (It.). A tenor who sings comic parts. Tenore leggiero (It.), v. Tenor. Tenore robusto (It.), v. Tenor.
Tenorfagott (Ger.). A tenor bassoon. A bassoon a fifth higher
than the ordinary bassoon. Tenorflote (Ger.). A tenor flute, a member of the family of the
flutes a bee.





Tenorhorn (Ger.). A brass wind instrument with valves. It hat
a compass extending from E to b' and even d". Tenori acuti (Lat. and It.). " High tenors." (v. Alto.) Tenorist (Ger.). A tenor singer.
Tenorposaune (Ger.). A tenor trombone, (v. Trombone.)
Tenorschlussel (Ger.). Tenor clef.
Tenor trombone, v. Trombone.
Tenor tuba. v. Tuba.
Tenorzeichen (Ger.). Tenor clef.
Tenu, Tenue (Fr.). Held, sustained.
Tenue (Fr.). A holding note.
Tenuto (It.). Held, sustained.
Ter (Lat.). Thrice.
Ternaire (Fr.), Ternario (It.I. Ternary
TERNARY TIME—TIBIA UTRICULARIS. 239

Ternary time, or measure. That time which consists of three members with the accent on the first, (v. Introduction, § X., p. 21, &c.)
Terpodion. (1) A keyboard instrument whose sounds are produced from bars of wood by means of a revolving cylinder. (2) An organ stop of 8-feet pitch.
Tertia (Lat. ). The third ; the interval of a third.
Tertia modi (Lat.). The third degree of a scale.
Ter unca (Lat. ). A demisemiquaver.
TerZ (Ger.), Terza (It.). The interval of a third.
Terzadecima (It.), Terzdecime (Ger.). The interval of a
thirteenth.
Terzdecimole (Ger.). A group of notes dividing a bar or part of
a bar into thirteen equal portions. Terzett (Ger.), Terzetto (It.). A composition for three voices
or instruments. Compositions for three instruments are, however,
now generally called trios. TerzflSte (Ger. ). A Third Flute, a flute a minor third higher in pitch
than the ordinary flute.
Terzina (It.). A triplet.
Terzo SUOno (It.). A difference tone. (v. Resultant tones.) Tetracliord. A series of four notes with a compass of a perfect
fourth. The ancient Greeks divided their tonal system into
tetrachords.
Tetratonon (Gk. ). An interval consisting of four whole tones. Theil (Ger.). Apart.
Theiltone (Get.). Partial tones, aliquot tones. Thema (Ger.), Thème (Fr.). A theme, or subject
Theorbe (Ger.), Théoibe (Fr.). A theorbo.
Theorbo. A large species of lute with many strings, some being stretched above, some beside the finger-board. Its fretted neck had two sets of pegs, the lower for the high strings, the higher for the lower. The theorbo, chiefly employed for the accom-paniment of vocal music, was one of the most important members of the early orchestra. It was one of the instruments to which the execution of the basso continuo used to be en-trusted.
Theoretiker (Ger.), Théoricien (Fr.). A theorist.
Thesis (Gk.). The downbeat, the accented part of a bar. Thiorbo. The same as Theorbo.
Thorough bass. (1) A continuous bass with or without figures.
The same as basso continuo (q.v.). (2) The science of harmony. Threnody. A song of lamentation. Thrice-accented octave. (v. Introduction, p. 5.) Tibia (Lat.). A flute.
Tibia angnsta, aperta, major, sylvestris, vulgaris, &c
(Lat. ). Flute-stops in the organ. Tibia ntricnlaris flit). A bagpipe.


»40
TIBICEN—TOCCATINA.

Tibicen (Lat.). A flute-player. — Tibicines, flute-players.
Tie. A curved line above or below two notes of the same pitch which indicates that they have to be played like one note equal in length to the two. This curved line is also called a bind.
Tief (Ger. ). Deep, low.
Tierce (Fr. and Engl.). (I) The interval of a third. (2) An organ stop that sounds a seventeenth higher than the diapason. (3) One of the Canonical Hours.
Tierce de Picardie (Fr.). The major third in the concluding chord of a composition in a minor key.
Timbale (Fr.). A kettle-drum. — Timbalier, a player on the kettle-drums.
Timballo (It.). A kettle-drum.
Timbre (Fr.). Quality of tone, clang-colour, (v. Harmonics.) Timbre depends chiefly upon the form of the vibrations of a sounding body, that is, on the number, selection, and strength of the upper partials accompanying the fundamental note. (v. Harmonics.)*
Timbrel. A tambourine.
Timorosamente (It). Timorously.
TimoroSO (It.). Timorous.
Timpani (It.). Kettle-drums.
Tintamarre (Fr.). A great noise accompanied with confusion. Tintement (Fr.). The prolonged sound of a bell, &c. Tintinnabolo (It.), Tintinnabulum (Lat.). A small bell. Tintinnamento, Tintinnio (It.). A tinkling, a jingling.
Tiorba(It.). A theorbo.
Tirade (Fr.). A quick succession of notes of equal length, ascending
or descending by degrees, which bridge over a great interval
between two notes. Tiranas (Sp.). A kind of Spanish national songs. Tirato (It.). A downbow, in violin playing, &c. Tira tutto (It.). A draw-stop or pedal which throws out all the
stops of the organ, thus bringing into action the whole power ol
the instrument. Tire (Fr. ). A downbow, in violin playing, &c.
Toccata (It.). A purely instrumental form of which we hear already in the latter part of the sixteenth century. The name is derived from toccare, to touch, to play. In its older form the toccata is a prelude consisting of a few chords and coloratura, or a something between a prelude and a fantasia, made up of runs, arpeggios, and short aperçus. A characteristic of the toccata is that it has the appearance of an improvisation. Although very different, the modern toccata shares yet to a greater or less extent the chief characteristics of its predecessor. It is generally constructed out of a nimble figure which is kept up throughout ; melodic effu-sions are excluded, and technical display and rhythmical move-ment are mainly aimed at. In short, the modern toccata partakes of the nature of the prelude, study, and improvisation.
Toccatina (It. ). A short toccata.
TOCCATO—TONE-PAINTING.
241
Toccato (It.). The fourth (i.e., lowest) part of a choir of trumpets. Todtenmarsch (Ger.). A funeral march.
Tombeau (Fr.). Lit., "tomb." A name given to pieces of an elegiac and impassioned character. To "Le Tombeau de Climène, " a scene in Cambert's opera Les Peines et les Plaisirs de VAmour (1672), where Apollo sings a lament over the tomb of his beloved, is to be ascribed the origin of the name.
Ton (Ger.). A tone.
Tonada (Sp. ). A tune. Tonadica, or Tonadilla, a short tune. Tonal. Pertaining to a tone, mode, key. The expression tonal fugue is explained in the article Fugue.
Tonalitât (Ger.), Tonalité (Fr.), Tonality. A word used in
many senses, and oftener used than understood. It is derived from tone (mode), and signifies, in the first place, the quality, peculiarity, of a tonal system, mode, and key ; then also the pre-dominance of one key over a group of keys associated with it. In the sense of tonal system, one speaks of a Hindoo, Chinese, Arabic, &c, tonality, and—with regard to our Western-European music—of a mediaeval, or ecclesiastical, and a modern tonality. Tonality may in these cases not inaptly be defined as " musical idiom." It has to be noted that in whatever sense the word is used it signifies not only a scale, a series of notes disposed in a certain order of succession, but also the relation of these notes to each other, more especially the predominance of one note, or one chord, or one key over the rest. The predominance of one chord—the chord of the tonic, i.e., the triad on the first degree of a scale—is a peculiarity of our modern music (with its major and its minor mode, and their different keys), which is harmonic in its nature, whereas the mediaeval music (with its Church modes) was essentially melodic. The tonality of an extended composition consists in the preponderance of one key over the other keys into which it modulates. If the composer loses sight of the tonality, or, in other words, if he fails to group his keys so as to briag the many into due subordination and proper re-lation to one, his work will lack unity, and consequently clear-ness, force, and harmoniousness. Tonart (Ger.). (I) Key. (2) Mode.
Tonbildung (Ger.). (i) Production of sound. (2) Study and improvement of the production of sound.
Tondichter (Ger.). A tone-poet, a composer.
rondichtung' (Ger.). A tone-poem, a musical composition.
Tone. (1) A musical sound in contradistinction to noise. (2) A sound of a certain pitch (high or low). (3) A sound of a certain quality (sweet, harsh, thin, full, &c). (4) The second smallest interval of ourpractical music, a semitone being the smallest. (5) A mode.
Tone-painting. This is of two kinds ; it is either concerned with what passes without or what passes within us. The former kind, to which the word oftenest applies, is of course less noble than Q


«42
TONFALL—TONZEICHEN

the latter. But when treated artistically and kept in due subor-dination the painting of external phenomena must be admitted to be quite legitimate. Tonfall (Ger.). A cadence.
Tonfarbe (Ger.). Clang-colour, timbre, quality of tone.
Tonfolge (Ger.). A succession of sounds.
Tonführung (Ger.). Melodic and harmonic progression.
Ton generateUF (Fr.). The fundamental note, or root, of a chord.
Tongeschlecht (Ger.). A mode—for instance, the major and minor modes, which are the two Tongeschlechtcr of our modern music. The literal meaning of the word is " tonal genus."
Tonic. The basis, the first, or key-note of a scale. Nota finalis and nota principalis (final and principal note) are synonymous expressions. In connection with the last remark read, however, what is said under Final.
Tonica(It). The tonic.
Tonic Sol-fa. v. Solmisation.
Toni flcti (Lat.). The transposed ecclesiastical tones, or modes.
Tonika (Ger.), Tonique (Fr.). The tonic.
Tonisch (Ger.). Pertaining to the tonic.
Tonkunde (Ger.). The science of music.
Tonkunst (Ger.). Music ; lit., " tone-art," or " tonal art."
Tonkünstler (Ger.). A musician £ lit., "tone-artist."
Tonleiter (Ger.). A scale.
Ton majeur (Fr.). Major key.
Tonmalerei (Ger.). Tone-painting.
Tonmesser (Ger.). A monochord or a sonometer.
Ton mineur (Fr.). Minor key.
Ton OS (Gk.). Atone.
Tonsatz (Ger.). (I) Musical composition. (2) A musical compo-sition.
TonSChluSS (Ger.). A cadence.
Tons d'eglise (Fr.). The Church modes.
Tons de la trompette (Fr.). Crooks of the trumpet for altering
the key of the instrument. Tons du cor (Fr.). Crooks of the horn for altering the key of the
instrument. Tonsetzer (Ger.). A composer. Tonsetzkunst (Ger.). The art of composition. Tons OUVerts (Fr.). The natural notes of a horn, &c. Tonstück (Ger.). A piece of music, a composition. Tonstufe (Ger.). A degree of a scale. Tonsystem (Ger.). A tonal system. Tonumfang (Ger.). Compass.
Tonus (Lat.). Tone.—Tonus currens, the reciting note. Tonwerkzeug (Ger.). A natural or artificial musical instrument—
the human voice, a violin, flute, &c, &c. Tonzeichen (Ger.). Any sign used in musical notation.
____—TRANSPOSE.
*43
Toph (Heb.). A timbrel, a hand-drum.





Tosto (It.). Quick, rapid.—Più tosto, quicker, [v. Piuttosto in App.) Toilette (Fr. ). Finger-board of the violin or similar instrument. Toucher (Fr.). To play. Lit., " to touch."
Touches (Fr.). (i) The keys of a pianoforte, organ, harmonium, or other keyboard instrument. (2) The frets of a guitar, lute, viol, &c
TouchetteS (Fr. ). This name is sometimes given to the frets of the
guitar, mandoline, &c. ToUQUet (Fr.). The same as toccato.
Trackers. A part of the mechanism of the organ through which the player acts on the pallets which shut out the wind from the pipes. The trackers are long strips of wood ; their name de-scribes their office.
Tract, v. Tractus.
Tractur (Ger. ). The mechanism of the organ between the keys and the pallets.
Tractus (Lat.). A tract. Tracts are melodies, or neumatised chants, of a sorrowful cast of expression, sung in the Roman Catholic Church after the Graduale and instead of the Alleluia, during Lent, in the Requiem Mass, and on some other occasions. The words to which they are sung are taken from the psalms.
Tradotto (It.). Lit., "translated, transferred." Transposed, ar-ranged.
Traine (Fr.). Lit., "dragged, trailed." This term indicates a kind of legato.
Trait (Fr.). (1) A tract, (v. Tractus.) (2) A succession of quick
notes, sung or played, forming as it were one trait. Trait de chant (Fr.). A melodic phrase. Trait d'harmonie (Fr.). A succession of chords. Traité (Fr.). A treatise.
Tranquillamente (It.). Tranquilly, peaceably. Tranquillità (It.). Tranquillity, calm, quiet.—Con tranquillità,
with tranquillity, calmly. Tranquillo (It.). Tranquil, peaceable.
Transcription. ( I ) An arrangement of a composition for a voice or voices, an instrument or instruments, other than those for which it was originally written. (2) A kind of fantasia on themes from a work or works of another composer.
Transitio (Lat.). Modulation into another key.
TransitUS (Lat.). A passing over, a transition.—Transitus regu-laris, a passing note ; transitu! irregularis, a changing note.
Transponiren (Ger.). To transpose.
Transpose. To render a composition in a higher or lower key than that in whiih it is written ; or, in other words, to copy, sing, or play t composition at a different pitch, a semitone, tone, a minor or major third, &c, higher or lower, as the case may be.


244 TRANSPOSING INSTRUMENTS—TRIAD.

Transposing instruments. Thus are called those instru-ments which produce sounds differing in pitch from the note* written for them. To give some instances : the clarinet in A sounds a minor third lower, the trumpet in E flat a minor third higher, the horn in D a seventh lower, the piccolo an octave higher, and the double bass an octave lower.
Transpositeur, or Piano transpositeur (Fr.). A transpos-ing pianoforte, a pianoforte with a movable keyboard. Transposition, v. Transpose.
Transposition scales. The Greek transposition scales are trans-positions to a higher pitch of the Hypo-Dorian scale (A B c d t f g a b c'd' e' f g1 a'). Inclusive of this prototype they are fif-teen in number. Starting each time a semitone higher we get the Hypo-Iastian (5?), Hypo-Phrygian (B), Hypo-/Eolian (C), Hypo-Lydian (Cj), Dorian (D), &c. These transposition scales (keys, we may call them) must not be confounded with the dif ferent octave species (modes).
Trasoinando (It.). Dragging, trailing.
Trattato (It.). A treatise.
Trauermarsch (Ger.). A funeral march.
Traurig (Ger.). Sad, sorrowful, melancholy.
Traversiere (Fr.). Cross.— Fl&te traversiire, cross-flute, German flute—i.e., our ordinary flute, not the ftdte H bee.
Traverso (It.). Cross.—Flauto traverso, the same as fl(Ue traver-siire.
Tre (It.) Three.—A tre, for three voices or instruments.
Treble. (l) The highest kind of voice, (v. Soprano.) (2) The
highest vocal and instrumental parts. (3) The highest register
of the compass of an instrument. (4) The highest member of
some families of instruments. Treble clef. The G clef on the second line ; it is also called violin
clef. (v. Introduction, § III., p. 4, &c.) Treibend (Ger.). Hurrying, pressing, urging. Tremando (It.). The same as the more common tremolande.
Tremblement (Fr.). A shake.
TremolandO (It.). Trembling, quivering.
Tremolo, Tremolante (It.), Tremolant, Tremulant.
An organ and harmonium stop which produces a tremulous effect. On bow instruments the tremolo is produced by a slight rapid movement of the bow hither and thither ; on keyboard instruments like the pianoforte by a rapid alternation of notes.
Tremolo, TremolosO (It.). Trembling, shaking, quivering.
Trenchmore. An old English country-dance.
Trenise (Fr.). One of the figures of the quadrille (q.v.).
Trepodion. v. Terpodion.
Triad. A chord consisting of three different notes that are reducible to a fundamental note and two superimposed thirds, (v. Intro-duction, § VIII., p. 14.)
TRIANGEL—TRIPLUM.
«45

Triangel (Ger.)- A triangle.
Triangle. An instrument of percussion which consists of a steel rod bent into a triangular form, and whose sound is produced by striking it with a straight metal rod.
Trias (Lat.). A triad.
Tribrach. A metrical foot consisting of three short syllables: — ~- — Trichord, (i) An instrument with three strings. (2) A pianoforte,
or any other instrument, with three strings to each note. Tricinium (Lat.). A composition in three parts. Trill. A shake, (v. Introduction, pp. 43—46.) Trill e (Fr.). A trill, a shake. Triller (Ger.). A trill, a shake.
Trillerkette (Ger.). A chain of shakes, (v. Introduction, pp. 44
and 46.) Trillo (It.). A trill, a shake.
Trillo caprino (It.). A "goatish trill." Something more like the
bleating of a goat than what a shake ought to be. Trinklied (Ger.). A drinking song.
Trio (It.). (1) A composition for three voices or three instruments, or in three parts. Organ trios are pieces intended to be played on two manuals and the pedal keyboard. Vocal trios are either in song or aria-form ; classical instrumental trios are in sonata-form. (2) The name of the second division of a minuet (q.v.), march, &c. The curious appellation is thus accounted for. When, in times long gone by, to the first minuet (consisting of two parts) a second (likewise of two parts) was added, the latter was for variety's sake written in three parts, the former being generally in two parts only.
Triole (Ger.), Triolet (Fr.). A triplet.
Triomphal (Fr.). Triumphal.
Triomphant (Fr.). Triumphant.
Trionfale (It.). Triumphal.
Trionfante (It.). Triumphant.
Tripelconcert (Ger.). A triple concerto—i.e., a concerto for three
solo instruments and orchestral accompaniment. Tripelfug'e (Ger.). A fugue with three subjects. Tripeltakt (Ger.). Triple time.
Tripla (It.). A triplet; triple time. Tripla di minime, \ time. Triple Counterpoint. Counterpoint in three parts which are
mutually invertible. (v. Counterpoint and Inversion.) Triple croche (Fr.). A demisemiquaver.
Triplet. A group of three notes of equal length which divide a bai or part of a bar into three instead of two parts.
Triple time. v. introduction, § x., pp. 21—24.
Triplum (Lat.). In the early contrapuntal music the highest of three parts. It was also the highest part in four-part compositions in which there was a contra-tenor. Generally, however, the triplum was the second highest in four-part compositions, and the third


TRIFOLA—TROMBONE,

highest in five-part compositions, the highest part being in these cases respectively called quadruplum and quintuplum.
Tripola (It.). The same as Triplet,.
Trisemitonium (Lat.). A minor third.
Tristezza (It.). Sadness, melancholy.—Con tristezza, sadly.
Triton (Fr.), Tritono (It.), Tritonus (Lat.), Tritone. The
augmented fourth which is equal to three whole tones. Tritt(Oer.). (I) Step, tread. (2) Treadle, pedal. Trittharfe (Ger.). Pedal harp.
Tritus (Lat.). The third authentic Church mode, called the Lydian Troch.ee. A metrical foot consisting of one long and one short syllable : — —-
Trois (Fr.). Three.—Mesure h trois deux, § time ; o) trois qualrt,
\ time ; i trois huit, % time. Tromba (It.). A trumpet. Tromba bassa (It.). Bass trumpet.
Tromba cromatica (It.). The chromatic, or valve, trumpet Tromba marina (It.). A bow instrument with one string. Tromba spezzata (It.). An old name of the bass trumpet. Trombetta (It.). (1) A small trumpet. (2) A trumpeter.
Trombettatore, or Trombettiere (It.). A trumpeter.
Trombettino (It.). A very small trumpet.
Trombone. A brass wind instrument with a slide {q.v.), by which means it can extend its compass downwards, and produce all the chromatic notes within this compass. The most important members of the trombone family are the alto, the tenor, and the bass trombones, the soprano trombone being no longer used. The trombones used in the orchestra are the alto trombone in the key of E flat, which has a compass from A to e"t> (and higher); the tenor trombone in the key of B fiat, which has a compass from E to (and higher) ; and the bass trombone in the key of G, F, or E flat, the last of which has a compass from A, to e'1) (and higher). Besides the notes comprised in the compass above given each of the three trombones has four so-called "pedal-notes:" those of the alto and bass trombones, however, are bad and not easily practicable ; and of those of the tenor trombone (5,7, An A$, G,) only the first three are good, the fourth being difficult to produce. The trombones are not transposing instruments, but sound the notes as they are written. The alto trombone is generally noted in the alto clef, the tenor trombone in the tenor (or bass) clef, and the bass trombone in the bass clef. Three is the usual number of trombones employed in the orchestra. But the bass trombone is be-coming more and more rare, and instead of it a second tenoi trombone is frequently employed. In France we find even three tenor trombones. Besides the slide trombones there are also valve trombones, which, however, are inferior with regard to tone.
TROMMEL—TRUMPET.
247

Trommel (Ger.). A drum. — Wirbeltrommel, or kleine Trommel, a side-drum ; grosse Trommel, a big drum.
Trommelkloppel, or Tromm.elstocke (Ger.). Drum-sticks.
Trompe (Fr.). A hunting horn, cor de chasse. Trompe de Beam (Fr.). A Jew's-harp.
Trompeté (Ger.). (1) A trumpet. (2) A reed-stop in the organ of
8, and sometimes also of 16 and 4-feet pitch. Trompetengeige (Ger.). The tromba marina. Trompette (Fr.). (1) A trumpet. (2) A military trumpeter. (3)
A reed-stop in the organ. Trompette marine (Fr.). The tromba marina. Tropi. v. Tropus.
Troppo (It.). Too much.—Allegro ma non troppo, quick, but not too quick,
Tropus (Lat.). In the plural tropi.—(1) In the Roman Catholic Liturgy, intercalations, versicles before, between, and after the other ecclesiastical chants. (2) Melodic formulas characteristic of the several Church modes. (3) A synonym for mode or tone.
Troubadours, Trouvères, Trouveurs (Fr.)., Trovadores
(Sp.), Trovatori (It.). All these words are derived from trouver or trovare, to find, and radically mean the same thing. The troubadours were the poet-musicians south of the Loire, who flourished especially in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The trouvères and trouveurs were the poets of Northern France.
TrugSchluSS (Ger.). A deceptive, or interrupted, cadence, (v. Cadence.)
Trumpet. A brass wind instrument with about the same compass as the horn, but an octave higher in pitch. There are two kinds of trumpets, the natural and the valve trumpet. On the former can be produced, by the adjustment of the lips and modification of the breath, the following natural notes : C c g c1 e' g1b'Q c" d" e" f" g" a" b"p b" ("'. But the last four notes are difficult, and the first two both difficult and bad. Further, the b") is too flat and the/" too sharp. With the help of stopping, almost all the intermediate notes from c' upwards can be produced, but these stopped notes are even less good than those of the horn. The natural trumpet is made in many keys (i.e., of many sizes), which can be altered by crooks {q.v. ). The keys oftenest used are those in Bfc> basso, C, D, E?, E, F, G, Aj?, A, B? alto. Two trumpets of the same name, one an octave higher than the other, are distinguished by the epithets basso (low) and alto (high). The valve trumpet, which is a chromatic instrument, is made likewise in several keys ; the one in F is the most common ; those in D, E[7, and E come next. The slide trumpet, as its name implies, is furnished with a slide (q. v. ) by which its tube can be lengthened


248 TRUMPET MARINE—TUONI TRASPORTATI.

and the pitch altered. The music for the trumpet is written in the G clef: for the trumpet in C just as the notes sound, for that in B^f basso a tone higher, for that in D a tone lower, for that in E? a minor third lower, and so on.
Trumpet marine, v. Tromba marina.
Trumscheit (Ger.). The same as tromba marina.
Tuba (Lat.). (i) The war trumpet of the Romans, which was also used at religious festivals and on other solemn occasions, (2) The tuba in our time is a brass wind instrument with valves. The most important of the several tubas, that oftenest used in the orchestra, is the bass tuba. It occurs in various keys (of which F is the most common), but generally is not treated as a transposing instrument. Its compass in the orchestra is from about F, to f—these, however, are not the extreme limits. Richard Wagner, in his Ring des Nibelung, employs two tenor tubas, two bass tubas, and one contrabass tuba.
Tubicen (Lat.). A tuba player.
Tucket. A flourish of trumpets.
TumultUOSO (It.). Tumultuous.
Tune. (I) A melody, an air; more especially a rhythmical, ear-catching, easily intelligible melody. The word is also applied to compositions in parts. (2) The expression to be in tune signifies when applied to performers, " to produce the notes at their proper pitch," or " to agree with each other as regards pitch;' when applied to an instrument, "to be adjusted as regards pitch to some other instrument," or " to have its several notes properly adjusted to each other." To tune an instrument is "to adjust it as regards pitch to another instrument," or "to adjust its several parts (strings, pipes, reeds, &c.) to each other."
Tunillg-cone. An instrument in the shape of a hollow cone, used
for tuning the metal pipes of organs. Tuning-crook, v. Tuning-wire.
Tuning-fork. An instrument used for the ascertainment of pitch, the tuning of instruments, and scientific purposes. It is usually made of steel, and consists of two prongs (or rather one bent red) and a handle. The common English tuning-forks give the tone e", the common Continental ones the tone a'.
Tuning-hammer, or Tuning-key. An instrument used for
tuning the pianoforte. It is a combination of a key and hammer. The key is used for turning the wrest-pins (q.v.), and the hammer to drive them in and fix them more firmly. Tuning - keys are also used for the harp and some other instruments.
Tuning-wire. That part of an organ reed-pipe by means of which
the reed is tuned. Tuoni ecclesiastici (It.). The Church tones, or modes. Tuoni trasportati (It.). Transposed tones, or modes.
TURBA—UEBERLEITUNG.
Z49

Turba (Lat.). "A crowd." This word, which occurs in old sacred dramas and settings of the history of the Passion (Passion Music), indicates the utterances of multitudes (Jews, Heathen, &c.) in contradistinction to those of single actors or the speeches ol the narrator. Turba is the plural of turba. The turba must not be confounded with the lyrical, contemplative, &c, choruses that do not form part of the action.
Turco, Turca (It.). Turkish.—Alia turca, in the Turkish style.
Turkish music, v. Janitscharen Musik.
Turn. An ornament consisting of a principal note and an auxiliary note above and below, {v. Introduction, § XIV., pp. 42
and 43.)
Tusch (Ger.). A flourish of trumpets.
Tutti (It.), v. Tutto. This word not only indicates those passages which, in distinction from solo passages, are sung and played by all the performers, but it serves also as a name for such passages. A tutti is a passage sung or played by the whole chorus, the whole orchestra, (v. Concerto.)
Tutto, m. sing.; Tutta, f. sing.; Tutti, m. plur.; Tutte, f. plur. (It.). All.—Tutta laforza, all the power; tutte le corde (in piano-forte music after the occurrence of una corda), all the strings; tutti, all—i.e., all the performers.
Tuyau a anche (Fr.). A reed-pipe.
Tuyau a bouche (Fr.). A flue-pipe.
Tuyau d'orgue (Fr.). An organ pipe.
Twelfth. (1) An interval. (2) An organ stop sounding a twelfth
above the diapasons. Twice-accented octave. (*. Introduction, p. 5.) Tympanist (Ger.). A kettle-drum player.
Tympanum (Lat.). A drum, a tambourine ; a kettle-drum. The plural form of the word is tympani. (v. Timpani.)
Tyrolienne (Fr.). (1) A Tyrolese song. A peculiarity of the Tyrolese songs is the quick and frequent alternation between the notes of the chest-voice and those of the head-voice (falsetto). (2) A Tyrolese song in % time, a Latuiier.


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