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-- G --



G. The name of the fifth degree of C major, the normal major scale.
Gagliarda (It.), Gagliarde (Ger.). A galliard.
Gay, lively, metry.
Gai (Fr.). Gay, merry, lively. Gaiement (Fr.). Gaily, merrily, lively. Gaillarde (Fr.). A galliard. Gajamente (It.). Gaily, merrily, lively.

Galamment (Fr.), Galantemente (It.). Prettily, pleasingly,
gallantly.
Galant m., Galante, f. (Fr.), Galante (It.). Pretty, pleasing,
gallant, graceful.
Galliard. An old dance of a lively, vigorous character in f time. It was of Italian origin.
Galop, Galopade (Fr.), Galopp, Galoppade (Ger.). A
galop, a quick dance in % time. Galoubet, or Galoube (Fr.). A small fife with three finger-holes,
a national instrument of the Provencals. Gambe (Ger.). v. Viola da gamba.
Gamma. The Greek name of the letter G (_). In musical terminology the word gamma has been employed variously : (i) as the name of the lowest note {G) of the Guidonian scale ; (2) as the name of that scale ; (3) in the sense of scale, or gamut, generally ; (4) in the sense of compass of a voice or instrument, the succession of notes from the lowest to the highest.
Gamma Ut, or _ ut. The name of the note G, the lowest note in the old solmisation. From this name is derived the English word gamut, (v. Gamma.)
Gamme (Fr.). v. Gamma.
Gang (Ger.). (1) A passage. (2) A period not symmetrically articulated.
Ganz (Ger.). Whole.—Ganze Note, a whcJe note, a semibreve ;
ganzer Takt, a whole bar. Ganzton (Ger.). The interval of a tone.
Garbo (It.). Grace, elegance.- Congario, with grace, elegance.
GAUCHE—GEMSHORN.
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Gauche (Fr.). Left.—Main gauche, left hand.
Gavotta (It.), Gavotte (Fr.). A gavot. A graceful old French dance in binary time ((Jj), with a well-marked rhythm, and of a moderately quick movement.
G Clef. The sign that determines by its position on the stave which of the notes is J. The only 6 clef now in use is that on the

Gauche (Fr.). Left.—Main gauche, left hand.
Gavotta (It.), Gavotte (Fr.). A gavot. A graceful old French dance in binary time ((Jj), with a well-marked rhythm, and of a moderately quick movement.
G Clef. The sign that determines by its position on the stave which of the notes is J. The only 6 clef now in use is that on the
which is called also treble and

violin clef. The G clef on the first line, the French violin clef,
is now obsolete. Gdur(Ger.). G major. Gebläse (Ger.). The bellows of an organ. Gebrochene Akkorde (Ger.). Broken chords. Gebunden (Ger.). (1) Slurred ; tied.—Alles wohl gebunden, all the
notes well slurred (legato). (2) "Fretted." Gebunden were
called those clavichords each string of which served for more
than one note. (v. Buntfrei.)
Gedackt, Gedact, or Gedakt (Ger.). Stopped, in contra-distinction to open—terms used in connection with organ pipes. Gedämpft (Ger.). Muted, muffled. Gedeckt (Ger.). The same as gedacht (q.v.). Gedehnt (Ger.). Distended, sustained, drawn out. Gedicht (Ger.). A poem.
Gefährte (Ger.). The answer, consequent, of a fugue and canon. Gefällig (Ger.). Pleasing, in a pleasing manner. Gefühl (Ger.). Feeling.—Mit Gefühl, with feeling, with expression. Gegenbewegung (Ger.). Contrary motion.
Gegenharmonie (Ger.). Countersubject; whatever is opposed to,
or accompanies, the subject and answer of a fugue. Gegensatz (Ger.). Countersubject.
Gehalten (Ger.). Sustained.—Gut gehalten, well sustained.
Gehend (Ger.). At a walking pace. Andante.
Geige (Ger.). A violin.
Geist (Ger.). Spirit; soul; mind ; genius.
Geistlich (Ger.). Spiritual, sacred.—Geistliche Lieder, spiritual, 01
sacred, songs; hymns. Gelassen (Ger.). Calm ; placid. Geläufig (Ger.). Fluent; voluble. Geläufigkeit (Ger.). Fluency, volubility, ease. Geltung (Ger.). Value—for instance, of a note or a rest. Gemächlich (Ger.). Slow, gentle, comfortable, commodious. Gemässigt (Ger.). Moderate.
Gemshom (Ger.). "Chamois horn." The name of a pleasing organ stop, often of 8-feet pitch, sometimes of 4 or 2-feet, and in the pedal organ of 16-feet.

GEMÜTH—GIGUE.

Gemüth (Ger.). Mind, soul, heart.
Genera (Lat.). The plural of genus, kind. The ancient Greeks distinguished three musical genera : the diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic.
GeneralbaSS (Ger.). Thorough-bass.
Generalpause (Ger.). A rest in all the parts.
Generalprobe (Ger. ). A general, or principal, rehearsal.
Générateur (Fr.), Generator. Fundamental note, root.
Genere(It.). Genus, kind.
GenerOSO (It.). Generous, noble, magnanimous.
Genial (Ger. ). Pertaining to genius, clever, ingenious, spirited.
Génie (Fr.), Genie (Ger.). Genius.
Genre (Fr. ). Genus, kind, sort ; style.
GentÜ,m.,GentÜle,f. (Fr.), Gentile (It.). Pretty, tender,delicate. Gentülement (Fr.), Gentilmente (It.). Prettily, tenderly,
delicately. Genus (Lat.). v. Genera. Gerade Bewegung (Ger.). Similar motion. Gerade Taktart (Ger.). Binary time. German flute. The cross-flute, (v. Flute. ) German sixth. The chord of the German sixth consists of a
major triad and an augmented sixth—for instance, fa c ¿"4. Ges (Ger.). G flat.
Gesang (Ger. ). Singing ; a song, A vocal composition ; a melody. Gesangbuch (Ger.). A song-book, a hymn-book. Gesangsgruppe (Ger.). The second subject of a first sonata movement.
Gesangverein (Ger. ). A choral society. Geschlecht (Ger.). Genus. Geschleift (Ger.). Slurred. Geschmack (Ger.). Taste. Geschwind (Ger.). Quick. Ges dur (Ger.). G flat major. Geses (Ger.). G double flat.
Getheilt ( Ger. ). Divided.—Getheiltt Violinen, the same as violinidivisi. Getragen (Ger.). Lit., "carried." Sustained and well connected. Sostcnuto e legato.
GhiribizzO (It.). Whim, fancy, humour. Ghiribitzi is the plural form of the word.
GhiribizzOSO (It.). Whimsical, capricious, fantastical.
GigaUt.). A jig. (v. Gigue.)
Gigelira (It.). A Xylophone, or Strohfiedel (g.v.).
Gigue (Fr.). A jig. A very lively old dance in duple or quadruple ternary time—as (or £ with quaver triplets), f, £, and also in y-f and -f-y. Examples in simple ternary time (|-) are com-paratively rare, and a jig in (Jj with triplets is something excep-tional. Nothing certain can be said about the origin of this dance.





Giochevole (It.). Playful, merry. Giocondamente (It.). Playfully, joyously. Giocondo (It.). Playful, joyous, gay. Giocosamente (It.). Jocosely, gaily, merrily. GioCOSO (It.). Jocose, gay, merry. Gioja (It.). Joy, mirth, delight. Giojante (It.). Mirthful.
Gioiosamente (It.). Joyfully.
GiojOSO (It.). Joyful, mirthful. Gioviale (It.). Jovial, pleasant Gis (Ger.). G sharp. Gisis (Ger.). G double sharp.
Giubilio, Giubilo, or Giubilazione (It.). Jubilation, rejoicing. GiubiloSO (It.). Jubilant. GlUOCante (It.). Playful. Giuochevole (It.). Playful, gay, merry. Giustamente (It.). Exactly, precisely.
Giusto (It.). Exact, precise. Just, appropriate, (v. Tempo giusto.)
Glass harmonica. An instrument the sounds of which are pro-duced by friction from glass bells, the performer making use either of his fingers (which must be moistened) or some mechanical means, (v. Harmonica and Euphon.)
Glee. A secular vocal composition, peculiar to England, in three or more parts, one voice only to a part. It consists generally of more than one movement, and may be of any character—gay or serious, tender or bacchanalian. The word glee is derived from the Anglo-Saxon, gle6, glccnv, gliw, joy, mirth, music.
Gleich (Ger.). Equal.—Gleicher Contrapunkt, "equal counter-point "—i.e., note against note.
Gleicnschwebende Temperatur (Ger.). Equal temperament, {v. Temperament.)
Gli (It.). The masculine plural of the definite article in Italian.
Gli3sando, Glissato, Glissicando, Glissicato. Words
with Italian terminations which have been sometimes used in the sense of glisse1 {q.v.). None of them is a genuine Italian word, but glissando is to be met with in Italian musical publications.
Glisse' (Fr.). Sliding. This expression indicates that a passage thus marked has to be played smoothly; in pianoforte music, that a series of notes has to be played with one finger, which the per former draws over the required keys.
Glbckchen (Ger.). A little bell.
Glocke (Ger.). A bell.
Glockenspiel (Ger.). (I) A set of bells, a carillon. (2) An instru-ment consisting of a series of small bells, or, more commonly now, of a series of metal bars, which the performer strikes with a small hammer or acts upon by means of keys. This instrument is also known by the names of Carillon and Chimes. (3) An organ stop.—The literal meaning of the word is " play of bells,"
Gloria (Lat.). One of the divisions of the mass.


144
G MOLL—GREAT OCTAVE.

G moll (Ger.). G minor. Gnaccare (It.). Castanets. Gondellied (It.). Gondola song.
Gorgheggfiamento (It.). The art of performing florid passages, trills, &c.
Gorgheggiare (It.). To perform florid passages, trills, &c. Gorgheggio (It.). A florid passage. Gorgheggi is the plural. Graces. Ornaments, notes of melodic embellishment, such as the appoggiature, turns, shakes, &c. {v. Introduction, § XIV., p. 38.)
Gracieux, m., Gracieuse, f. (Fr.). Graceful.
Gracile (It.). Small, thin, delicate.
Grad(Ger.). Degree.
Gradevole (It.). Pleasing, grateful.
Gradevolmente (It.). Pleasingly, gratefully.
Grado (It.). A degree, step. — Grado ascendente, ascending step; grado descendente, descending step.
Gradúale (Lat.). A gradual. (1) What is sung in the mass between the Epistle and Gospel. (2) The book which contains what is sung in the mass by the choir, (v. Concent us.)
Graduellement (Fr.). Gradually.
Gran cassa (It.). The big, or bass, drum.
Grand, m., Grande, f. (Fr.). Large, great.
Grand barré (Fr.), v. Barré.
Grand orgue (Fr.). The great organ.
Grandezza (It.). Grandeur, dignity.
Grandioso (It.). Grand, magnificent, splendid, majestic.
Grandisonante (It.). Loud-sounding, re-echoing.
Grand jeu (Fr.). (1) The name of a harmonium slop which brings into play the full power of the instrument. (2) Full organ ; a combination of all or most of the stops.
Grappa (It.). The brace which connects two or more staves.
Grasseyement (Fr.). A faulty (guttural) pronunciation.
Grasseyer (Fr.). To pronounce ¿Mtturally.
Grave (It.). (1) Low, grave, in pitch. (2) Heavy, ponderous, in movement. Craw is next to largo the slowest movement. (3) Grave, serious in expression.
Grave (Fr.). Serious. Heavy, ponderous. Low, deep, as regards pitch.
Gravecembalo, or Gravicembalo (It.). A harpsichord. Gravement (Fr.), Gravemente (It.). Heavily, ponderously;
seriously.
Gravis (Lat.). Heavy, ponderous. The name of one of the accentus
ecclesiastici.
Grazia (It.). Grace, elegance, comeliness.—Con grazia, with grace
Graziös (Ger.). Graceful.
Graziosamente (It.). Gracefully.
GrazioSO (It.). Graceful.
Great octave, v. Introduction, p. 4.





Great organ. A part of the organ which is distinguished from the Choir and Swell organ by more numerous and more powerful stops. Each of these divisions of the organ has a separate keyboard.
Greek music. The limits of a concise dictionary exclude neces-sarily the exposition of so intricate and problematic a subject as the theory of Greek music. Here can be found room only for a few remarks on the Greek systems (scales), and some reference: to articles treating of details.
The Greek systems are composed of tetrachords (series of four notes with a compass of a perfect fourth) which succeed each other in two ways—either the last note of one tetrachord coincides with the first note of the adjoining tetrachord (this being called synaphe, conjunction) or an interval of a tone is left between them (this being called diazeuxis, separation).
The Perfect System (systema teleion) is a two-octave scale, and has the following arrangement :
A Bc~~cTc'J~pa f7~dlrf~p~a'.
The single note at the commencement of the scale is the Proslambanomenos, the note " added " to complete the two octaves.
Of another of the several Greek systems and of their nomen-clature the following table will give some account.
Hyperboleon (extreme) tetrachord.
Diezeugmenoa
(disjunct) tetrachord.
THE IMMUTABLE SYSTEM (systema ametabolon). Nete (last note) hyperboleon .
Synemmenon (conjunct) tetrachord. Meson (middle) tetrachord. Hypaton (lowest) tetiachord.
Paranete (last but one) hyperboleon Trite (third) hyperboleon Nete (last) diezeugmenon Paranete (last but one) diezeugmenon Trite (third) diezeugmenon Paramese (neighbour of the Mese) Nete (last) synemmenon Paranete (last but one) synemmenon Trite (third) synemmenon Mese (middle note) Lichanos (forefinger) meson . Parhypate (neighbour of the Hypate) meson Hypate (lowest) meson , Lichanos (forefinger) hypaton. Parhypate (neighbour of the Hypate) hypaton Hypate (lowest) hypaton Proslambanomenos (acquired note) . . A
For further information see the articles Diatonic, Chromatic, Enharmonic, Transposition scales, ^Eolian, Dorian, Ionian, Lydian, Phrygian, Hyper, Hypo, &c.

146
GREGORIAN CHANT—GUITAR.

Gregorian Chant. The chief characteristics of this music, which owes its name, but not its existence, to Pope Gregory I. (590— 604), are these : it is strictly diatonic, not in harmony, and with-out prescribed rhythmical measure—"the text being the master, the notes the slaves." (v. Church Modes and Plain-Chant.)
Griffbrett (Ger.). The finger-board of stringed instruments such as the violin, guitar, lute, &c.
Groppetto (It.). The same as gruppetto (f.v.).
Groppo (It.). The same asgruppo (q.v.).
Gross (Ger.). (1) Great, large, grand. (2) Major—for instance, GrOSSe Terz, a major third.
Grosse caisse (Fr.). The big, or bass, drum.
Grossoflt.). (I) Big, great, large. (2) Deep.
Gros tambour (Fr.). The same as grosse caisse {q.v.).
Ground bass. A bass passage of a few bars which is again and again repeated, whilst the other parts are varied at every repetition.
Grundakkord (Ger.). A chord with its fundamental note in the bass, a chord which is not inverted.
GrundbasS (Ger.). A fundamental bass.
Grundstimme (Ger.). The lowest, fundamental, part.
Gmndton (Ger.). (1) The fundamental note of a chord. (2) The tonic of a scale. (3) The tonic of the principal key in a com-position.
Gruppetto (It.). A turn.
Gruppo (It.). A group of notes. A diminution of a note into four shorter notes of equal length—for instance, the note tf either into c1 a" C b or c1 b c1 a".
G Schliissel (Ger.). The G clef.
Guaracha (Sp.). A graceful, gay Spanish national dance, one part of which is in -| (or \) and the other in \ time.
Guaranita, Guarana, or Garanita (Sp.). A variety of the
Spanish guitar. Guemero (It.). Warlike, martial.
Guida (It.). (1) The subject of a fugue and antecedent of a canon
and any kind of imitation. (2) A direct. (3) v. Presa in App. Guide (Fr.). Subject of a fugue and antecedent of a canon. Guidon (Fr.). A direct.
Guidonian syllables, v. Aretinian syllables. Guimbarde (Fr.). A Jew's-harp.
Guitar. A long-necked instrument which in modern times has been strung generally with six strings, and whose finger-board is provided with frets. The strings, which are plucked with the fingers of the right hand, are tuned in E A dgbe1; but as guitar music is written an octave higher than it sounds, their notation is as follows :—

GUITARE—HARMONICA.
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Guitare (Fr.), Guitarra (It.), Guitarre (Ger.). A guitar.
Guitar© d'aniour (Fr.). An instrument (invented by Georg Staufer, of Vienna, in 1823) with six strings tuned like those of the guitar but played with a bow. In some of its features it resembles the guitar, in others the violoncello. It has not inaptly been described as a viola bastarda. The Germans call it also: Bogenguitarre (Bow-guitar), Knieguitarre (Knee-guitar), and violoncellguitarre (violoncello-guitar).
Gusto (It.). Taste.—Con %usto, with taste; di buon gusto, tasteful.
Guter Takttheil (Ger.)i "The good part of the bar "—i.e., the accented part.
Guttural. Formed in the throat. A guttural sound is produced in singing when respiration is obstructed in the throat.


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