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Music Dictionary
-- C --

[Those -words not given under C should be sought under K.)
C. The name of the first degree of the normal major scale.
Cabaletta (It.). Avery melodious and rhythmical musical thought, so taking as to impress itself at once even on the memory of the least musical hearer. It is generally employed as a conclusion to arias and duets in the Italian style.
Cabinet d'orgrue (Fr.). An organ case.
Cabinet pianoforte. An upright pianoforte about six feet high,
introduced in the early part of this century. Cabiscola (Lat.). A precentor, or leader of a choir.

Caccia (It.). Chase, hunting.—Alia can-in, in the hunting style. Cachucha (Sp.). A Spanish national dance in ternary time.
Cacofonia (It.), Cacophonie (Fr.), Cacophony. Dis
agreeable sound, discordant sounds. Cadence. A close. Lit., "a fall." The term applies to melody as well as to harmony : (I) to the last melodic step of a strain (not necessarily a " fall " as regards pitch, but always a subsidence of motion into relative rest), and to a shaKe or brilliant passage of more or less extent which leads up to the close of a piece, or part ot a piece (v. CadenzaN; (2) to two chords which form a close, mark a point of rest, complete or incomplete.
The harmonic cadences may be divided into four classes. (I) The chords of the dominant and tonic form a full, or authentic, cadence, which is perfect when the bass has the fundamental note of the first and of the second (hord, and the highest part othe octave of the fundamental note of the second chord (a), but otherwise is imperfect (aa). (2) The chords of the subdominant (major or minor) and tonic form the plagal cadence. According to some theorists it is, like the authentic, a full close ; accord-ing to others it is not (i). (3) The chord of the tonic (c), or any other chord (cc), and that of the dominant form a half dose, or semi-cadence. Some writers, however, call this cadence im perfect. Indeed, the nomenclature is very unsettled. (4) An interrupted, deceptive, or Jalse cadence, occurs where the chord of the dominant is followed by any chord except that of the tonic (d).
la) {aa)


Cadence (Fr.). (i) A shake. (2) The harmonie close of a musical phrase, and the resolution of a dissonant chord. (3) Measure, regulated movement.
Cadence brisée (Fr. ). An abrupt shake : it begins with the upper auxiliary note, but is not, like the cadence pleine, preceded by it as a long appoggiatura.
Cadence évitée (Fr.). Lit., "avoided cadence." A dissonant chord followed by another dissonant chord instead of the ex-pected consonant triad.
Cadence imparfaite (Fr.)- An imperfect cadence, a half close (tonic, dominant).
Cadence interrompue (Fr.). An "interrupted cadence." A chord of the dominant seventh followed by another chord of the dominant seventh whose fundamental note lies a third lower or higher, a second lower, &c.
Cadence irréglllière (Fr.). The same as cadence imparfaite.
Cadence parfaite (Fr.). A perfect cadence ; a full close (domi-nant, tonic).
Cadence pleine (Fr.). (1) A shake which is preceded by the
upper auxiliary note as a long appoggiatura. (2) A dissonant
chord followed by a consonant chord. Cadence rompue (Fr.). A "broken cadence." A chord of the
dominant seventh followed by another censonant chord than that
of the tonic. Cadenz (Oer.). A cadence.
Cadenza (It.). A cadence (q.v.). In English the word cadenza is used in the sense of a short or a more or less extended nourish which does not form part of the rhythmical structure of a com-position, but is a mere intercalation. Such flourishes may be met with anywhere in the course of vocal and instrumental com-positions, more especially, however, at the end of the last solo of pieces for solo voices or instruments. In the aria and kindred forms the cadenza was a prominent feature. It assumed, how-ever, the greatest importance in the concerto ; there the flourish expands often into a brilliant fantasia on themes of the com-position into which it is introduced—a fantasia either improvised by the performer or written out in full by the composer. These long concerto cadenzas occur in the first and last movements, at the end of the last solo, and begin usually on the chord of the fourth and sixth, preceding the full close (dominant, tonic).
Cadenzad'ingannO,orcadenzaflnta(It.). Adeceptivecadence.
Csesura (Lat.). In music, the break, or pause, which in the course of a period marks the end of a phrase.
Caisse (Fr.). A drum.—Grosse caisse, bass drum.
Caisse roulante (Fr. ). The long side-drum.
Calamus (Lat.). A reed pipe, a kind of shawm.
Calamus pastoralis, or Calamus tibialis (Lat.). One of
the most ancient wood wind instruments. It had three or four sound-holes and was made of reed.

Calando (It.). Decreasing in loudness, synonymous with diminuendo.
Sometimes it includes along with a decrease in loudness also a
slackening of the pace. Calandrone (It.). A reed instrument with a hoarse but pleasing
tone, in use among the Italian peasants. Calascione (It.). An instrument of the lute kind with a long neck,
a small body, and two or three strings. Calata (It.). An Italian dance in f time. Calcando (It.). Hurrying the time. Calcant (Ger.). Bellows-treader. Calmato (It.). Calmed, quieted, appeased.
Calore (It.). Heat, affection.—Con caiore, with warmth, with passion.
Caloroso (It.). With warmth, with passion.
Camera (It.). Chamber.—Musica dii camera, chamber music ; sonata da camera, chamber sonata.
Campana (It.). A bell. Campanella (It.). A small bell.
Campanetta (It.). A set of bells, a carillon.
Canarie (Fr.), Canarie, or Canaries. An old dance, a kind of
jig in f or f time. CanariO (It.). The same as Canarie.
Cancellen (Ger.). Grooves, the small channels in the organ which
conduct the wind from the wind-chest to the pipes. Cancrizans (Lat.). Retrogressive.
CanClTSZameilte, or cancrizzante (It.). Reversed, retro-gressive
Carina (It.). A reed ; a pipe.—Canne d'organo, organ pipes; canne Sanima, flue-pipes; canne a lingua, reed-pipes.
Canon. A composition in which the notes of one part are strictly imitated by one or more other parts. The imitation may be at the octave, fifth, or any other interval. There are also canons by diminution, by augmentation, by retrogression, &c. In the first kind the notes of the antecedent are diminished in length in the consequent; in the second kind they are augmented ; and in the third kind they appear in retrogressive order. A canon " two in one " is a canon for two parts and with one subject; a canon " four in two " is a canon for four parts and with two sub-jects ; and so on. For further information see the next articles.
Canon cancrizans (Lat.). Canon by retrogression; that is to say, the consequent performs the notes of the antecedent backwards.
Canone (It.). A canon.
Canone aperto (It.). An open canon—i.e., one written out in full. Canone cancrizzante (It.). The crab-like canon; canon by

Canone chiuSO (It.). A close canon ; that is, one of which only one part has been written out, the number and the entrance of the other parts being indicated by sign* or words.


Canone enigmatico (It.)- Enigmatic canon; a canon in which Jie number and the entrances of the parts are not indicated, or only hinted at by an obscure motto.
Canone inflnito or canone perpetuo (It.). An infinite
canon, one without a conclusion. Canone soiolto (It.). A free canon, one in which the imitation is
not exact.
Canonical Hours. The daily offices of devotion prescribed to the Roman Catholic clergy. They are : (I) Matins and Lauds ; (2) Prime ; (3) Tierce ; (4) Sext; (5) None ; (6) Vespers ; (7) Compline. Of these, Matins and Lauds, Vespers, and Com-pline are called the greater hours, and the others the lesser hours.
Cantabile (It.). In a singing style.
Cantamento (It.). Singing ; an air.
Cantando (It.). Singing, in a singing style.
Cantare (It.). To sing.
Cantata (It.). The word originally meant something sung in con-tradistinction to something played (sonata). So varied are the innumerable exemplifications of the cantata, that it is impossible to define its character. Now this name is givsn to a vocal com-position of some extent consisting of recitatives, arias, choruses, &c, with orchestral accompaniment in most cases ; formerly it often signified a short vocal composition for one voice with organ, harpsichord, or some other simple accompaniment. Indeed the range of the cantata may be said to extend from an elaborate song to a short oratorio and an opera not intended for the stage. (v. Cantata da camera in Appendix.)
Cantatilla and Cantatina (It.). A short cantata.
Cantatore (It.). A male singer.
Cantatrice (It.). A female singer.
Cantatorium (Lat.). A service-book in the Roman Catholic Church containing the music of the Antiphonary as well as that of the Gradual.
Cantellerando (It.). Singing in a low voice ; warbling. Canterina (It.). A female singer. Canterino (It.)._ A male singer.
Canti carnascialeschi (It.). Songs that used to be sung some
centuries ago at Florence during carnival time. Cantica (Lat.), Cantici (It.). Canticles, hymns. Cantico (It.). Canticle, hymn.
Cantilena (It.). A short song-like composition ; sometimes also a short cantata for one voice ; but more especially a strikingly
song-like (cantabile) melody.
Cantilenare (It.). To sing. Cantilenaccia (It.). A bad song^.
Cantillatio (Lat.). The reading in a singing style; for instance, of the Epistles, Gospels, Collects, (v. Accentus ecclesiastici.)
Cantino (It.). The highest string of an instrument ; for instance, the E string of the violin.
Cantío (Lat.). A song. — Cantiones sacrtz, sacred songs, motets,
anthems. Cantique (Fi.). A canticle.
Canto (It.). (1) A song, a melody. (2) The art of singing. (3) The highest part in concerted music. (4) The soprano voice. (5) The highest string of an instrument, (v. Cantino.)
Canto a cappella (It.). Vocal church music without instrumental accompaniment.
Canto Ambrosiano (It.). Ambrosian Chant.
Canto armónico (It-). A vocal composition in parts.
Canto cromatico (It.). Chromatic vocal music.
Canto fermo (It.). Cantus firmus (q.v.).
Canto figurato (It.), v. Cantus figuratus.
Canto Gregoriano (It.). Gregorian Chant.
Canto piano (It.). Plain-Chant.
Canto primo (It.). First soprano.
Canto recitativo (It.). Recitative, declamatory singing. Cantor (Lat.). A singer, a leader of a choir, a precentor. Cantore (It.). A chorister, a singer.
Cantoris (Lat.). Of the cantor. This term is used to designate that side in a cathedral choir where the precentor sits, opposite being the decani side.
Canto secondo (It.). The second soprano.
Cantus (-Lat.). (1) Song, singing. (2) A song, a melody, (v. Canto.)
CantUS AmbrosianuS (Lat.). Ambrosian Chant {q.v.).
Cantus figliralis (Lat.). The same as Cantus mensurabais (q.v.).
Cantus figuratus (Lat.). " Figúrate song." A cantus Jirmus accompanied by a figúrate, figured, or florid counterpoint- The expression is also used in the sense of cantus mensurabilis (q v.).
Cantus firmus (Lat.). Lit., "fixed chant." (1) Plain-Chant, Plain-Song, Gregorian Chant. (2) A fragment of Plain-Song or any other melody to which counterpoint is added.
CantUS Gregorianus (Lat.). The Gregorian Chant.
CantUS mensurabilis (Lat.). Mensurable song in contradis tinction to cantus planus, Plain-Chant; or, in other words, music consisting of notes of different and fixed time-values.
CantUS planus (Lat.). I'lain-Song.
Canzona (It.). A song, a ballad.
Canzonaccia (It.). A bad, a vulgar song.
Canzoncina (It.). A short song.
Canzone Sacra (It.). A sacred song. Canzonetta (It.). A canzonet, a little canzone. Canzoniere (It.). A collection of lyric poems or songs. Capelle (Ger.). v. Cappella, and Kapelle.
Capellmeister (Ger.). "Chapel-master." Origina'.ly the musical director of a church or chapel. Now the title is applied to the musical conductor of a theatrical or concert performance, to the conductor of an orchestra and indeed of any instrumental band.

Capo (It.). The head ; the beginning.—Da capo, from the be-ginning.
Capotasto (It.), (i) The nut of stringed instruments with a neck. (2) A small piece of ebony or ivory screwed over the strings onto the finger-board of a guitar in order to raise its pitch.
Cappella (It.). A chapel, choir. The musicians collectively who perform in the choir The members of an orchestra taken collectively. This word is often written capella. (v. A cappella.)
Capriccietto (It.). A short capriccio.
Capriccio (It.). A caprice. A sort of fantasia, a composition in which the composer follows the dictates of his fancy more than the prescriptions of conventional form. Also a study.
Capriociosarnente (It.). Capriciously, in a fanciful style.
CapriccioSO (It-)- Capricious, fanciful.
Caprice (Fr.). v. Capriccio.
Caractères de musique (Fr.). The signs used in the notation of
Caressant (Fr.). "|
Carezzando (It.). f-In a caressing, insinuating manner.
Carezzevole (It.). J
Caricato (It.). Overloaded with regard to embellishments, disso-nances, instrumentation, or any other means of musical expression.
Carillon (Fr.). (i) A chime—i.e., a set of tuned bells which are played upon either by clockwork or by means of a key-action. (2) It is also the name of an instrument in this country more generally called Glockenspiel (q.v.), or chime, consisting of a set of tuned metal bars.
Carilloneur (Fr.). A bell-player.
Carita (It.). Charity, affection.—Con carita, with tenderness. Carmagnole (Fr.). A famous French revolutionary song. Itcame
into vogue in 1792, and derives its name from the Piedmontese
town Carmagnola. Carol. A song of exultation or mirth. The custom of singing
Christmas carols is of very ancient origin. Carola (It.). A round (dance) accompanied with singing. Cartelles (Fr. ). Large leaves of hide or cloth prepared, varnished,
and provided with musical staves, on which notes could be
written and at pleasure effaced. The Italians call these leave*
Cartellone (It-). A placard. The prospectus of an operatic season. Cassa, or cassa grande (It.). The big, or bass, drum.
Cassatio (Lat.), Cassazione (It.), Cassation (Cer.). Lit.,
" dismissal." Originally the concluding piece of a musical performance, afterwards a kind of serenade consisting of several instrumental pieces.
Gastagnette (It.), Castagnettes (Fr.), Castañetas, 01
Castañuelas (Sp.). Castanets. Small clappers in the form of concave shells made of hard wood or ivory. They are used by the Spaniards as an accompaniment to their dances and songs.

CastratO (It.). A eunuch. A male singer with a soprano or contralto voice.
Catch. A kind of round, a canon at the unison for three or more voices. As only one part was written out, each succeeding singer had to catch his part. The first printed collection of catches is of the year 1609. Later on a comic element was introduced, and the catch was so contrived that the words were caught up by the singers and a ludicrous meaning thereby given to them. Round and Catch were originally synonymous terms.
Catena di trim (It.). A chain, or succession, of trills.
Catgut string's. What the English call "catgut strings" the French, Germans, &c, call simply and more correctly "gut strings ;" for these strings are made not of guts of cats, but mostly of guts of sheep. Italian gut strings are the best.
Cavalletto (It.). The same asponticello (o.v.).
Cavalquet (Fr.). A cavalry trumpet call.
Cavata (It.). (1) Production of tone. (2) The word has also been
used synonymously with cavotina. Cavatina (It.). A short and simple kind of aria, mostly of a tender
and affectionate character.
C barrò (Fr.). The —(1?— which indicates alia breve time,
\ and -j. (v. Alia breve ; and Introduction, p. 22.)
C clef. The clef which indicates which place on the stave is occupied by d. The Soprano Clef stands on the first line, the Mezzo-Soprano Clef on the second, the Alto Clef on the third, the Tenor Clef on the fourth, {v. Introduction, § III.)
0 dur (Ger.). C major.
Celere (It.). Quick, nimble.
Celerità (It.). Celerity, swiftness.—Con celerità, with swiftness, quickly, nimbly.
Celeste (Fr.). Celestial. The jeu celeste or pedale celeste was a mechanical arrangement by which on the drawing out of a stop or the pressing down of a pedal the sound of the pianoforte could be modified.—The voix celeste is a stop on the organ and harmonium.
Celli (It.). Abbreviation of violoncelli.
Cello (It.). Abbreviation of violoncello.
Cembalista (It.). A player on the cembalo.
Cembalo (It.). A harpsichord. The same as clavicembalo.
Ces (Ger.). C flat.
Cetera (It.). A cither.
Cetera tedesca (It). The " German cither," a ten-stringed instru-ment of the lute class.
Chacona (Sp.), Chaconne (Fr.), Ciacona, or Ciaconna
(It.). A slow dance in f time, the origin of which (whether Italian, Spanish, or Saracenic) cannot with certainty be deter-mined. It was constructed on 1 ground bass


Chalumeau (Fr.). (i) The shawm. (2) The lowest register of the clarinet. The word "chalumeau" in clarinet music in-dicates that the notes have to be played an octave lower. (3) Several unimportant wind instruments bear this name likewise.
Changer de jeu (Fr.). To change the stops of an organ 01 harmonium.
Changing note. ( I ) A passing note on the accented part of a bar. (2) With the old contrapuntists, a passing discord on the unaccented part of the bar which does not proceed by degree, but by leap, and consequently is not regularly resolved. The second note in the following series is such a changing note (note cambiata) : a" <? a b \ <!.
Chanson (Fr.). A song. Chansonette (Fr.). A little song.
Chant. A short composition to which the Psalms and Canticles are sung. There are two kinds of chants, Gregorian and Anglican. The latter are either single or double chants. A single chant consists of a strain of three and one of four bars. Double chants consist of four strains respectively of three and four, and again three and four bars. Quadruple chants have latterly also been introduced. Apart from tonality and rhythm, the ancient Gregorian chant differs from the modern Anglican chant by certain opening notes called the intonation. The several parts of the Gregorian chant are : the intonation, first reciting note, mediation, second reciting note, and termination. The Anglican chant begins at once with the reciting note. Monotone recita-tion (on the reciting note) followed by melodic modulations (the mediation and termination) in the middle and at the end of each verse are the characteristics of what, in the restricted sense of the word, is called "chanting," the original and wider meaning of the wcrd being "song" or "singing." {v. Ambrosian Chant, Gregorian Chant, and Plain-Chant.)
Chant (Fr.). Song; tune; melody; singing.
Chanter (Fr.). To sing.
Chanter à livre ouvert (Fr.). To sing at sight.
Chanterelle (Fr.). The highest string of the instruments of the
violin and lute classes. Chanteur (Fr.). A male singer. Chanteuse (Fr.). A female singer. Chant pastoral (Fr.). A pastoral song. Chantre (Fr.). Chorister, precentor, singer.
Chantry. An endowed chapel where masses are said for the souls of the donors.
Chant sur le livre (Fr.). An extemporaneous counterpoint added by one or more singers to the canto fer mo sung by others. It is identical with contrappimto alla mente.
Chapeau chinois (Fr.). A crescent. An instrument to be met with in some military bands (infantry), which consists of a staff (carriage), a crescent with two horse-tails, and a metal ornament
like a Chinese hat, to the two latter parts being attached a great
number of small bells, which are made to sound by shaking the staff. Characters. The signs employed in the notation of music. Charakterstücke (Ger.). Characteristic pieces. Pieces descripth e
of moods, impressions, and events. Charivari (Fr.). Discordant noise. A serenade with tin kettles,
fire-tongs, penny whistles, &c. Chasse (Fr.). Chase, hunting.—À la chasse, in the hunting style. Chef d'attaque (Fr.). He or she who leads the singers of a chorus
part—the sopranos, altos, tenors, or basses. This term is also
applied to orchestral leaders. Chef d'orchestre (Kr.). The conductor of an orchestra. Chelys (Gk.). (i) An ancient Greek lyre. (2) In the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries this name was applied to instruments of the
viol class.
Chest of viols. A set of viols. A good chest of viols consisted of two trebles, two tenors, and two basses.
Chevalet (Fr.). The bridge of a stringed instrument.
Caevilles (Fr. ). The pegs of instruments of the violin and lute classes.
Chevroter (Fr.). To perform a shake in a manner resembling the bleating of a goat.—Chevrotement is the French word for what the Italians call trillo caprino and the Germans Bockstriller.
Chiara, f. (It.). Clear, pure.
Chiaramente (It.). Clearly, distinctly.
Chiarezza (It.). Brightness, clearness.
Chiarilia (It.). A species of trumpet, a clarion.
Chiaro, m. (It.). Clear, pure.
Chiave (It.). (1) Clef. (2) Key of an instrument. (3) Tuning-key. Chica. A Spanish dance much in favour with the descendants of the
Spanish settlers in South America. Chiesa (It.). Church.—Concerto da chiesa, a sacred concerto. Chiffré (Fr.). Figured.—Basse chiffrée, figured bass. Chirogymiiast. An apparatus which has for its object the
strengthening of the fingers. Chiroplast. A mechanical contrivance invented by Logier which
keeps the wrists of the pianist at a certain height, and thus
accustoms young players to a good position of the hands and
promotes a firm touch. Chitarra (It.). A guitar. Chitarra coll' arco (It.). how-guitar. Chitarrina (It.). The small Neapolitan guitar. Chitarrone (It). A kind of theorbo, a large and very long-necked
instrument of the lute class, with two sets of pegs a considerable
distance from each other. The longer set of strings is not
stretched over but beside the finger-board. Chiuso (It.). Close.—Canone chitiso if.v.). Chœur (Fr.). Choir, chorus.
Ctioir. A band of singers ; that part of the church in which they perform.


Choir organ. A portion of the organ, consisting of a set of stops and a corresponding keyboard, called thus in distinction from the more powerful " great organ."
Chor (Ger.), (i) A choir. (2) A chorus.
ChoragUS (Lat.). The leader of the ancient dramatic chorus.
Choral. Belonging to a choir; written for or sung by a choir. (». Chorus.)
Choral (Ger.). A psalm or hymn tune; also plain chant. Chorale. English spelling of the German word Choral. Choräle (Ger.). Plur. of Choral. Psalm or hymn tunes. Choralist. A member of a choir, a chorister.
Choral music. Music written for a choir, (v. Chorus.)
Chord. Two or more sounds combined according to the laws of har-mony and simultaneously performed, (v. Introduction, § VIII., p. 13.) To what has been said in the Introduction may be added here, that some theorists give the names " chords of the eleventh, thirteenth," &c, to combinations of sounds which othei theorists do not regard as independent chords.
Chorda (Lat.). (1) A string. (2) A tone or note.
ChordSB (Lat.). Plur. of chorda (q.v.).
Chordae essentiales (Lat.). The tonic, third, and fifth of any key. Chöre (Ger.). Choirs, choruses.
Choriambus. A metrical foot consisting of two short syllables
between two long ones : — — — Chorister. A member of a choir or chorus.
Chorton (Ger.). The obsolete "choir pitch" which prevailed formerly in German churches. It varied at different times, and was as much as a tone and even a minor third higher than the secular pitch, the Kammerton, " chamber pitch."
Chorus. (1) A choir, a band of singers. (2) A composition sung by a band of singers, each part being performed by a multiplicity of voices.
Christe eleison (Gk.). A part of the Kyrie, which is the first principal portion of the musical mass.
Chroma (Gk. and Lat.). (1) A quaver. (2) A chromatic semi-tone.
Chroma simplex (Lat.). A single sharp (|). Chromaduplex
(Lat.). A double sharp ( x ). Chromatic. This word, derived from the Greek chroma, colour, has a twofold meaning. (1) In modem music, progressing by semitones, chromatic in distinction from diatonic (q.v.).— Chromatic notes are notes of the diatonic scale altered by sharps, flats, or naturals.—A chromatic scale is one which proceeds throughout by semitones, (v. Diatonic scale.)—A chromatically altered chord is a chord which contains one or more notes foreign to the key to which it belongs, one or more notes proper to the key being sharpened or flattened a semitone. (2) In the musical genus called by the ancient Greeks chromatic, the tetiachord (a

series of four notes, a division of the scale) ascended by two semitones and a tone and semitone ; for instance, b c d$ e,
Chromatique (Fr.) j chromatic.
Chromatisch (Ger.). /
Chrota, Chrotta. v. Rota and Crowd.
Church modes. The scales or octave species in use before oui present major and minor modes prevailed ; that is, up to and into the seventeenth century. These scales, which are purely diatonic and differ only in the position of the two semitones, are either authentic or plagal. Each authentic mode has a corre-sponding plagal, and both contain the same notes ; but whilst in the former the tonic is the first degree of the scale, it is the fourth in the latter. St. Ambrose is said to have introduced the first four authentic scales, Gregory the Great paired them with four plagal ones, and subsequently three more authentic and three more plagal modes were added. As, however, the eleventh and twelfth are seldom made use of, they are often left out of account, and those which are properly speaking the thirteenth and fourteenth are called the eleventh and twelfth. In starting from the following fourteen notes and running over the next seven white keys of the pianoforte, you get the fourteen Church modes (tones, or scales), an authentic being always followed by a plagal:—D, A; E, B; F, C ; G, D; A, E ; B, F ; C, G. The Church modes are either called the first, second, third, fourth, &c, or receive the Greek epithets: (i) Dorian, (2) Hypodorian ; (3) Phrygian, (4) Hypophrygian ; (5) Lydian, (6) Hypolydian; (7) Mixolydian, (8) Hypomixolydian; (9) ^olian, (10) Hyposeolian ; (11) Hyperseolian, (12) Hyper-phrygian; (13) Ionian, (14) Hypoionian. {v. Authentic, Plagal, Final, and Dominant.)
ClewCOna (It.). Chaconne (q.v.).
CirL.bal (Ger.). A dulcimer.
Cimbali (It.). Cymbals.
Cimbel (Ger.). A mixture stop in the organ.

Circular canon. This is a canon which is so constructed that each repetition appears a second, or third, or fourth, &c., higher or lower ; the original key must therefore be reached, and thus the circle completed, after a certain number of repetitions.
Cis (Ger.). C sharp.
Cis dur (Ger.). C sharp major.
Cisis (Ger.). C double sharp.
Cis moll (Ger.). C sharp minor.
Citara (It.), v. Cithara.
Cithara (Lat.). (I) A kind of lyre in use among the Greeks and Romans. (2) The name of variously shaped instruments of the lyre species in mediaeval times. (3) A cither.
Cithara bijuga (Lat.). A double-necked cither.
Cither. An instrument in form like the lute, but strung with wire strings instead of catgut strings. The cither was generally


C moll (Ger.). C minor.
Coda (It.)- Lit., " a tail." Something added at the end of a piece 01
part of a piece of music as a conclusion. Codetta (It.). A short coda. (v. Fugue.) Cogli Stromenti (It.). With the instruments. Coi (It.). With the ; as coi Sordini, with the mutes. Col, coll', colla (It.). With the; as col basso, with the
Colascione (It.), v. Calascione.
Col Canto (It). With the vocal pait or with the melody.
Colla destra (It.). WTith the right hand.
Colla parte (It.). With the principal part.
Colla punta dell' arco (It.). With the point of the bow.
Coll' arco (It.). With the bow.
Colla sinistra (It.). With the left hand.
Colla voce (It.). With the voice.
Col legno (It.). With the "wood"—i.e., with the stick, not with
the hair of the bow. Coll' Ottava (It.). With the octave ; to be played in octaves.
Colofonia (It.). ^
Colopnane (Fr.). I Rosin, used for rubbing on the hair of bows.
Colophonium (Lat.). j (v. Rosin.)
Colophony. )
Coloratura (It.). Ornamental passages, runs, divisions, &c, in vocal music. This word, the plural form of which is coloratun, is less properly, but very conveniently, used also in connection with instrumental music.
Combination, or Combinational, tones, v. Resultant
Come (It.). As, like.
Come prima (It.). As at first.
Comes (Lat.). The companion, or answer, to the dux (guide), 01
subject, of a fugue. Come sopra (It.). As above. Come Sta (It.). As it stands, as it is written.
Comma. This is the name of various small intervals not used in practical music forming the difference between two notes of nearly the same pitch. Two of these small intervals are : (I) The comma syntonum, or the comma of Didymus, which is the difference between a major and a minor tone. (2) The comma ditonicum, or comma of Pythagoras, which is the difference between the twelfth fifth (just intonation, not tempered) and the seventh octave above a given note.
Commodamente (It.), j With ease, quietly, in a comfortable
Commodo (It.). ) manner.
Common chord. A chord composed of a bass note, its major or
minor third, and perfect fifth. Comodo (It.). The same as commodo. Oompiacevole (It.). In an agreeable, pleasant manner.

Completorium (Lat.). Compline.
Compline. The evening prayer or service, the last of the ____
Compound intervals. Intervals which are greater than an octave, a ninth being, for instance, considered the compound ol an octave and a second, a twelfth of an octave and a fifth, a fifteenth of two octaves.
Compound times. Times in which several simple times are grouped together : \ time, for instance, is simple time ; | time is compound time. (v. Introduction, $ X., pp. 21—24.)
Con (It.). With.
Con abbandono (It.). With self-abandonment, with passion.
Con affetto (It.). With passion, with tenderness.
Con affezione (It.). With affection, with tenderness.
Con afflizione (It.). Sorrowfully.
Con agilità (It. ). With nimbleness, with lightness.
Con agitazione (It.). With agitation, excitedly.
Con alcuna licenza (It.). With a certain degree of licence.
Con allegrezza (It.). Joyfully, gaily.
Con alterezza (It.). Proudly.
Con amarezza (It. ). Bitterly, sadly.
Con amore (It.). With love, affection, devotion.
Con anima (It.). With animation, with spirit.
Con brio (It.). With fire, with vivacity.
Con calore (It.). With warmth.
Con celerità (It.). With celerity.
Concento (It.). Concord, harmony.
ConcentUS (Lat.). (1) Concord ; harmony. Part music. (2) v. Accentus.
Concert (Ger.). (1) A concert. (2) A concerto.
Concertante (It.). (1) A brilliant composition for two or more solo instruments with or without orchestral accompaniment. (2) A composition in which one or more instruments play' prominent parts.—A part is said to be concertante (concertato or concertando) when it stands out from the rest of the accompani-ment and concerts, i.e., strives, with the principal part.
Concerted music. Music for several voices or instruments, the parts of which do not stand in the relation of solo and accom-paniment, but are of nearly equal importance.
Concerti (It.). The plural of concerto (g.v.).
Concertina. A small musical instrument, hexagonal in form, which as regards construction is somewhat similar to the accordion (g.v.). The English treble concertina has a compass of about three and a half or four octaves (from g to g"") with all the intermediate semitones, and is a double-action instrument—that is, on expanding and compressing the bellows the same note is produced. The tenor, bass, and double-bass concertina are, like the accordion, single-action instruments, producing different


notes on expanding and compressing the bellows. Charlej Wheatstone patented the concertina in 1829. The German concertina is a less perfect instrument than the English con-certina ; it is a single-action instrument, and its scale is not chromatic.
Concertino (It.). (1) A small concerto. (2) The opposite of ripieno—namely, "principal," or **conceriante;" for instance, vio/i?io concertino, principal violin. (3) The name concertino is sometimes applied to a first violin part in which are entered the obbligato passages of the other parts. (v. Concerto grosso.)
Concertmeister (Ger.). The leader of the orchestra, the first ot the first violins.
Concerto (It.). (1) A concert. (2) A composition consisting generally of three, rarely of four, movements, for one or more solo instruments with orchestral accompaniment. Its form is on the whole that of the sonata ; its distinctive features are the tutti (the orchestral ritornelli) and certain peculiarities arising from the intention to display the solo instrument and the powers of the player. As one of these peculiarities may be mentioned the cadenzas played by the performer of the solo part just before the concluding tutti of the first and the last movement, (v. Sonata and Cadenza.) The customary tutti, which, for instance, in Mozart's concertos appear in diffusive fulness, are in more modern times often curtailed or altogether omitted. This is especially the case with the long introductory tutti, which generally presented both the first and the second subject after-wards taken up by the solo part or solo parts. Also the cadenzas have lost much of their former importance. In other words, the concerto, at one time a show-piece, has more and more become a tone-poem. Concertos without orchestral accompaniment need hardly be mentioned, they are exceptional, and of very rare occurrence.
In its earliest application the word " concerto" was synony-mous with " concent," signifying not a definite form, but a com-position in parts, either purely vocal or vocal and instrumental. Giuseppe Torelli, who died in 1708, is regarded as the inventor of the modern concerto. The development of the concerto runs parallel, one may say is identical, with that of the sonata. The earlier exemplifications of these forms differ indeed often only in name. With Mozart (1756—1791) the concerto reached, so to speak, maturity. (See the following articles.)
Concerto da camera (It.). Chamber concerto, (v. Concerto and Concerto grosso.)
Concerto da chiesa (It.). Church concerto. This was at first simply a sacred composition without any fixed form and for several parts, either solely vocal or vocal and instrumental; afterwards the name was given to a composition for a solo voice with organ accompaniment; finally it meant a composition for a solo instru-ment with some kind of accompaniment.

Concerto gTOSSO (It.). Lit., "big concerto." It was distin-guished from the concerto da camera by the greater number o( instruments—some of them solo parts (the concertino), others orchestral parts (the concerto grosso).
Concert Spirituel (Fr.). A concert of sacred music.
Concertsttick (Ger.). A concert piece.
Concitato (It.). In an agitated, excited manner.
Concord. An agreeable, satisfying combination of sounds
Concordant (Fr.). A barytone voice or singer.
Con delicatezza (It.). Delicately.
Con desiderio (It.). With an expression of longing.
Con devozione (It.). With devotional feeling.
Con diligenza (It.). Carefully.
Con discrezione (It.). With discretion, as regards the accompani-ment of the principal part. Con disperazione (It.). In a despairing manner. Con dolce maniera (It.). In a sweet manner. Con dolcezza (It.). With sweetness. Con dolore (It.). Mournfully.
Conducteil (tier.). Conveyances. Tubes or channels in an organ which convey the wind to pipes not mounted on the wind-chest.
Conductor. The director of an orchestra or chorus. Con duolo (It.). With grief.
Con elevazione (It.). With elevation. In a lofty, elevated style.
Con energia (It.). With energy.
Con espressione (It. ). With expression.
Con facilità (It.). With facility.
Con fermezza (It.). With firmness, with decisis-
Con festività (It.). In a festive manne'
Con fiducia (It.). With confidence
Con fierezza (It.). Fiercely
Confinal, v. Fina)
(Jon nocnezza (It.). Hoarsely.
Con forza (It.). With force.
Con fretta (It.). Hurriedly.
Con fuoco (It.). With fire.
Con furore (It.). With fury, with vehemence.
Con garbo (It.). With elegance, gracefully.
Con giustezza (It.). With precision.
Con grandezza (It. ). With dignity, with majesty.
Con grazia (It.). With grace.
Con gusto (It.). With taste.
Con impeto (It.). Impetuously.
Con ira (It.). With an expression of anger.
Con leggerezza (It.). With lightness, airily.
Con lenezza (It.). In a gentle, quiet manner.
Con lentezza (It.). Slowly.
Con mano destra (It.)- With the right hand.


Con mano sinistra (It.). With the left hand.
Con molto passione (It.). With much passion.
Con precisione (It.). With precision.
Con prestezza (It.). With rapidity.
Con rabbia (It.). With rage, furiously.
Con rapidità (It.). With rapidity.
Con resoluzione (It.). With resolution, firmly.
Con sdegno (It ). Scornfully, angrily.
Consécutives. A term chiefly applied to progressions of perfect fifths and octaves, which are permissible only under certain con-ditions or for special purposes. They are most objectionable when the parts which thus offend are extreme parts. Consecutive unisons are likewise prohibited. But the prohibition of consecutive octaves and unisons applies only to individual parts, not to the doubling, reinforcing, of one part by another. Hidden consécutives are discussed in the article Hidden Fiftht and Hidden Octaves.
Con semplicità (It.). With simplicity.
Con sensibilità (It.). With sensibility, with feeling, tenderness. Con Sentimento (It.). With sentiment, with feeling.
A public school of music for advanced students.
Conservatoire (Fr.). Conservatorio (It.). Conservatorium (Ger., from Lat ). Consolante (It.). Consoling. Con solennità (It.). With solemnity.
Consonance. A harmonious, satisfying, restful combination of
sounds. The opposite of cmsonance is dissonance. Consonant. Concordant, harmonious, (v. Consonance.) Consonanz (Ger.), Consonanza (It.). A consonance. Con Sonorità (It.). Sonorously.
Con sordino (It.). With the mute. This indicates: (i) in piano forte playing that the soft pedal has to be used ; (2) in violin, viola, &c, playing that a mute has to be placed on the bridge ; (3) in horn, trumpet, &c, playing that a mute has to be inserted into the bell. Sordini is the plural of sordino, (v. Sordino. )
Con spirito (It.). In a spirited manner.
Con strepito (It.). Noisily.
Con suavità (It.). With suavity, with sweetness.
Contano (It.). Lit., "they count." This expression indicates in
scores that certain parts have to be silent. Con tenerezza (It.). With tenderness. Con timidezza (It.). In a timid manner. Con tinto (It.). With various shades of expression. Continuato (It.). Continued, held down, sustained. Continued bass. v. Basso continuo.
Contra (Lat. and It.). Over, against, facing, opposite to. The following articles will show the various meanings of the word when prefixed to other words.
ContrabaSSÌ8t (Ger.). A double bass player.

Contrabbasso, or Contrabasso (It.). The double bass.
Contraddanza (It.). A country-dance.
Contraffàgotto, or Contrafagotto (It.). A double bassoon
Contnainte (Fr.). Basse contrainte (q.v.).
Contralto (It.). The deepest and most full-toned species of female voice, the higher being mezzo soprano and soprano. Its average compass is from f to exceptional are e and /", g", &c. For choral purposes composers should not exceed the limits g and c" or a". Alto is used synonymously with contralto.
Con tranquillità (It.). With tranquillity ; calmly.
Contra octave. The octave from C, up to, but not inclusive of, C. (v. Introduction, p. 5.)
Contraposaune (Ger.). A 32-feet reed-stop in the organ.
Contrappuntista (It.). An adept in counterpoint, a contra-puntist.
Contrappunto (It.). Counterpoint.
Contrappunto alla mente (It.). Impromptu counterpoint.
The French called it Chant sur le livre (q.v.). Contrappunto doppio (It.). Double counterpoint. Contrappunto sopra il soggetto (It.). Counterpoint above
the subject.
Contrappunto Sotto il soggetto (It.). Counterpoint below
the subject. Contrapunkt (Ger.). Counterpoint.
Contrapuntal. Pertaining to, or of the nature of, counterpoint, (v. Counterpoint.)
Contrapuntist. One skilled in counterpoint, (v. Counterpoint.) Contr' arco (It.). Bowing (on the violin, &c.) in a manner contrary to rule.
Contrary motion. Contrary motion occurs when one part ascends and another descends. From contrary motion are distinguished similar and oblique motion.
Contrassoggetto (It.). Countersubject.
Contra-tenor (Lat.). The part above the tenor but below the highest part in a composition for several voices. The alto.
Contrattempo (It.). A note which begins on an unaccented part of a bar and ends on an accented. A syncopation.
Contratone (Ger.). The notes belonging to the contra octave.
Contre-basse (Fr.). The double bass.
Contredanse (Fr.). A country-dance (q.v.). A social dance " in which couples of dancers placed vis-a-vis make contrarily similar steps and figures." The most important contredanse, or rather series of contredanses, of our day is the Quadrille (q.v).
Contre-partie (Fr.). A part opposed to another.
Contrepoint (Fr.). Counterpoint.
Contrepointiste (Fr.). Contrapuntist,
Contre-SUJet (Fr.). Countersubject.
Contre-temps (Fr.). ». Contrattempo.


Conversio (Lat.). Inversion.
Coperto (It.). Covered, muffled.—Timpani coperti, muffled kettle-drums.
Copula (Lat.). A coupler.
Copyright. The exclusive right which an author has of publishing his works for a number of years, a right which he may sell absolutely or conditionally to a publisher or any other person.
Cor (Fr.). A horn.
Corale (It.). A hymn tune ; plain-chant.
Cor anglais (Fr.). "English horn." This instrument is a large-sized oboe with a compass from e to a". But as the cor anglais is a transposing instrument and sounds a perfect fifth lower than the notes written for it, these latter extend from b to e"'.
Coranto (It.). A Courante (q.v.).
Corda (It.). A string.
Corde (It.). Strings.
Corde (Fr.). A string.—Corde a jour, and corde a vide, open string. Cor de Chasse (Fr.). A hunting horn. Corde fausse (Fr.). A false string. Cor de Signal (Fr.). A bugle.
Cor de Vaches (Fr.). A cow-horn, used by herdsmen. Corifeo (It.). Corypheus (q.v.).
Corista (It.), (i) A male or female chorus singer. (2) A tuning-fork.
Cormome (Fr.). v Cromorne. Cornamusa (It.). The bagpipes.
Cornare (Lat. and It.) and Cornicare (!o«.), Corner iKc.J, To
sound a horn. Cornemuse (Fr.). The bagpipes.
Comet, (i) An obsolete wind instrument, generally made of wood, of which there were several kinds of different sizes, (v. Cornetto.) (2) The name of several organ stops. (3) A brass instrument of the trumpet family. (v. Cornet a pistons.)
Cornet a pistons. A brass instrument of the trumpet family with valves (t/.v.), by means of which a chromatic scale can be pro-duced. It is usually in the key of BJ and has one or more crooks (A, A|7, G), and therefore the notes written for it (from /J to c"') sound a tone, minor third, major third, or perfect fourth lower. The Soprano Cornet is in the key of E flat. Cornets in other keys are also to be met with, but are less common than those above mentioned.
Cornetta (It.). 1,1) A small horn. (2) A cornet.
Cornettino (It.). A small cornetto.
ComettO (It.). (I) A cornet (q.v.). (2) An obsolete wood wind instrument.—Cornetto muto, a mute—i.e., soft toned—horn ; cornetto torto, or storto, a crooked horn.
Corno (It.). A horn.
Corno alto (It.). The high norn.

Corno basso Ut.). The low horn. Como di bassetto (It.). Basset-horn,
Corno da caccia (It.)- A hunting horn.
Corno Inglese (It.). The English horn. (v. Cor anghis.) Cornopean. A name formerly given to the cornet a pistons If.V ).
Cor Omnitonique (Fr.). A horn, invented by Sax of Paris, on which by means of valves all the tones and semitones of the scale can be produced.
Coro (It.). A choir, a chorus.
Corona (It.)._ A pause C
Corps de voix (Fr.). Quality or volume of the voice. Correctorium (Lat.). Tuning-cone, used in tuning an organ. Corrente (It.), V. Courante.
Corre"petiteur (Fr.), Correpetitor (Ger.). The musician who teaches the singers their parts; also the musician who makes the ballet dancers acquainted with the accompanying music.
Coryphaeus (Lat.), Cb.oryph.6e (Fr.), Chorypheus. The
leader of the dramatic chorus.
Cotillon (Fr.). Lit., "petticoat." "A social game in form of a dance." The cotillon has no characteristic music. A waltz, gallop, or any other dance-tune is used for the purpose.
Couac (Fr.). The "quack" of the clarinet, oboe, and bassoon, caused by a bad reed or reeds, deranged keys, wearied lips, &c, which in English is also called the "goose.
Coule (Fr.). (1) Slurred, legato. (2) A grace consisting of two or three ascending or descending notes, forming as it were a double or triple appoggiatura. (v. Introduction, § XIV., p. 50.)
Counterpoint. (1) The art of adding one or more parts to a given part. (2) A part or parts added to a given part.
The contrapuntal style is distinguished from the harmonic in this, that whilst the latter consists of a melody accompanied by chords, the former is a simultaneous combination of several melodies, or melodic parts. The supreme contrapuntal formi are Canon and Kugue.
In teaching counterpoint, theorists assume generally five species : (a) /Vote against note—a semibreve against a semibreve ; (b) two notes against one—two minims against a semibreve; (c) four notes against one—four crochets against a semibreve ; (d) syncopated counterpoint—the second minim of one bar tied to the first of the following bar a semibreve entering on the first part of each bar ; (e) florid counterpoint—a mixture of the three preceding species.
Further, counterpoint is divisible into simple and double counter-point. The latter differs from the former in this, that its parts are invertible—i.e., may be transposed an octave, or ninth, tenth, twelfth, &C, above or below one another. Counterpoint is called triple when three and quadruple when four parts are mutually invertible.

Countersubject. (I) The second theme in double fugues and fugues with two subjects in distinction from the principal subject. (2) The subject accompanying the answer (the re-sumption by one part of the subject proposed by another) of a fugue. But the accompaniment of the answer gets this name only when it is retained throughout the fugue. (3) A melody forming a counterpoint against a cantus firmus.
Counter-tenor. Male alto voice, {v. Alto.)
Country-dance. Whether " country " means here simply " rustic," or has to be regarded as a corruption of " contra, is still a matter of controversy. But whatever the right inter-pretation may be, a country-dance is a contra-dance. One writer defines it as "a dance in which partners are arranged opposite to each other." Another writer, after remarking that at the commencement the gentlemen are arranged on one side and the ladies on the other, proceeds thus in his description of the dance : " In its figures the dancers are constantly changing places, leading one another back and forward, up and down, parting and uniting again. The numerous different figures, which give an interest to this dance, are generally designated with a particular name. The music is sometimes in f- and sometimes in if time " (Chambers's " Encyclopaedia " ). To this has, however, to be added that these are the most common, but not the only times in which country-dance tunes have been composed.
Coup d'archet (Fr.). A stroke of the bow in violin, violoncello, &c, playing.
Couper le SUJet (Fr.). To abbreviate the subject.
Coupler. The mechanism in an organ which connects different
manuals together, or the pedals with the manuals ; so that in
playing on one manual you act also upon another, or in playing
on the pedals you act also on a manual. Couplet (Fr.). (1) A stanza of a song. (2) A variation-Couplet. (1) Two verses which rhyme. (2) Two notes, the
division of a bar or part of a bar into two instead of three equal
Courante (Fr.). A merry, running old dance in J or x time. Couronne (Fr.). A pause. Cracovienne (Fr.). A Polish dance in j time. Credo (Lat.). The third principal division of the musical mass. Crembalum (Lat.). A Jew's-harp. Crescendo (It.)- Gradually increasing in loudness. Crescent, v. Chapeau chinois.

Cromatico (It.). Chromatic. Cromome (Fr.). The name of a family of obsolete reed wind instruments. In Germany it was called Krummhorn (crooked

horn). Cromorne is said to be a corruption of cormorne (car, horn ; morne, dim, gloomy).
Crooks. Curved tubes which are inserted into horns, trumpets, &c., for the purpose of altering the key. The A crook, for instance, in making the tube of an instrument in Bt> longer, makes its pitch also a semitone lower.
Crotalum (Lat., from Gk.).- A species of clapper, used by the ancient Greeks to mark the time in dancing.
Crotchet. A note or corresponding rest one-fourth the value of a semibreve. (v. Introduction, § IX., pp. 17—20.)
Crowd (Engl), Crwth (Welsh). A more or less lyre-shaped instrument the strings of which were originally twanged ; after-wards it was also played upon with a bow, modifications of structure being consequently introduced.
Cruciflxus (Lat.). A part of the Credo in the mass.
Crwth. v. Crowd.
Csardas, v. Appendix.
C Schlüssel (Ger.). The C clef.
Cue. To insure a correct entry of a part after a long rest, notes belonging to other parts are often inserted ; these are called a cue.
Cum sancto spiritu (Lat.). Part of the Gloria, one of the
divisions of the musical mass. Custos (Lat.). A direct, the sign w placed at the end of a line or
page. Another sign will be found among the signs now or
formerly used on p. 55 of the Introduction. Cymbales (Fr.). Cymbals. Cymbalista (It.). A cymbal player.
Cymbals. Musical instruments of percussion, made of metal, aad in form not unlike basins or plates. The sound is produced by clashing them together.
Cymbel (Ger.). ». Cimbel.
Czakan (Czech). A flute and walking-stick combined Czardas. v. Csardas in Appendix.

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